Katihar, Purnia country’s most polluted towns
The air pollution scenario continued to remain grim in the state as air quality index (AQI) in 10 towns was either in “very poor” or “severe” categories on Friday. Apart from the Bihar towns, Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh was the only other town in the country where the AQI was in “very poor” category.
Katihar and Purnia were the most polluted places in the country on Friday with “severe” AQI of 425 and 416, respectively, according to the daily AQI bulletin issued by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
The AQI was in “poor” to “very poor” categories in eight state towns. An AQI between 201 and 300 is considered “poor”, 301 and 400 “very poor”, and 401 and 500 “severe”. According to CPCB, “severe” AQI level can affect healthy people and seriously impact those with existing diseases, while the “very poor” air can cause respiratory illnesses on prolonged exposure.
India Submits its Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy to UNFCCC
India submitted its Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), during the 27th Conference of Parties (COP27) today. The Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy was launched by the Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Bhupender Yadav, who is leading the Indian delegation to COP 27, being held at Sharm-el-Sheikh, Egypt from 6-18 November, 2022.
The salient features of the strategy are –
The focus will be on the rational utilization of national resources with due regard to energy security. The transitions from fossil fuels will be undertaken in a just, smooth, sustainable and all-inclusive manner.
The National Hydrogen Mission launched in 2021 aims to make India a green hydrogen hub. The rapid expansion of green hydrogen production, increasing electrolyser manufacturing capacity in the country, and three-fold increase in nuclear capacity by 2032 are some of the other milestones that are envisaged alongside overall development of the power sector.
Increased use of biofuels, especially ethanol blending in petrol, the drive to increase electric vehicle penetration, and the increased use of green hydrogen fuel are expected to drive the low carbon development of the transport sector. India aspires to maximise the use of electric vehicles, ethanol blending to reach 20% by 2025, and a strong modal shift to public transport for passenger and freight.
While urbanisation will continue as a strong trend from our current relatively low base, future sustainable and climate resilient urban development will be driven by smart city initiatives, integrated planning of cities for mainstreaming adaptation and enhancing energy and resource efficiency, effective green building codes and rapid developments in innovative solid and liquid waste management.
India’s industrial sector will continue on a strong growth path, in the perspective of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’ and ‘Make in India’. Low carbon development transitions in the sector should not impact energy security, energy access and employment. The focus will be on improving energy efficiency by the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme, National Hydrogen Mission, high level of electrification in all relevant processes and activities, enhancing material efficiency and recycling leading to expansion of circular economy, and exploring options for hard-to-abate sectors, such as steel, cement, aluminium and others.
India has a strong record of enhancing forest and tree cover in the last three decades alongside high economic growth. India’s forest fire incidence is well below global levels, while its forest and tree cover are a net sink absorbing 15% of CO2 emissions in 2016. India is on track to fulfilling its NDC commitment of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of additional carbon sequestration in forest and tree cover by 2030.
The transition to low carbon development pathway will entail several costs pertaining to the development of new technologies, new infrastructure, and other transaction costs. While several estimates exist, varying across studies, they all fall generally in the range of trillions of dollars by 2050. Provision of climate finance by developed countries will play a very significant role and needs to be considerably enhanced, in the form of grants and concessional loans, ensuring scale, scope and speed, predominantly from public sources, in accordance with the principles of the UNFCCC.
MNRE notifies National Bio Energy Programme
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India has notified the National Bioenergy Programme on November 2, 2022. MNRE has continued the National Bioenergy Programme for the period from FY 2021-22 to 2025-26. The Programme has been recommended for implementation in two Phases. The Phase-I of the Programme has been approved with a budget outlay of Rs. 858 crore.
The National Bioenergy Programme will comprises of the following sub-schemes:
Waste to Energy Programme(Programme on Energy from Urban, Industrial and Agricultural Wastes /Residues) to support setting up of large Biogas, BioCNG and Power plants (excluding MSW to Power projects).
Biomass Programme(Scheme to Support Manufacturing of Briquettes & Pellets and Promotion of Biomass (non-bagasse) based cogeneration in Industries) to support setting up of pellets and briquettes for use in power generation and non-bagasse based power generation projects.
Biogas Programme to support setting up of family and medium size Biogas in rural areas.
To utilize huge surplus biomass, cattle dung, industrial and urban biowaste available in the country for recovery of energy, the MNRE has been promoting bioenergy in India since 1980s. One major support extended by MNRE has been Central Financial Assistance provided for setting up of Bioenergy projects such as Biogas, BioCNG, Power from urban, Industrial and Agricultural Waste / Residues for reducing their capital cost/ interest on loan therefore increase project viability.
BPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for BPCS Prelims and BPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by BPCS Notes are as follows:-
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