. The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits has been negotiated under the aegis of CBD to fulfill one of the objectives of CBD i.e. to promote equitable sharing of benefits arising out of use of genetic resources. It was signed by CoP in Nagoya, Japan. Once ratified by 50 members, it will be a legally binding agreement for parties to follow rules related to prevention of bio-piracy, and provide benefits including financial benefits to other parties when their genetic resources are accessed. It also plans to reduce the biodiversity loss by 20% and introduce measures to fight invasive species.
The Nagoya Protocol assumes importance in a globalized era of intensive exploitation of natural resources for commerce. Several requests are made to governments for the transfer of genetic resources abroad for research. Often these efforts are sponsored by corporates, particularly in the area of plant genetics for agriculture. The danger of allowing one- sided commercial exploitation of genetic resources, such as pathogens for vaccine production, wrongful patents, is inequitable. When this protocol comes into force the local communities like tribals will benefit. However, the flip side is that the United States — one of the largest users of such resources — is not among the nearly 200 signatories of the Access and Benefit Sharing rules of the Nagoya Protocol.
Aichi targets were set as a result of Nagoya Summit held in Aichi prefecture of Japan. They are a set of 5 goals with 20 targets. Targets are like – at least halve, and where possible ring close to zero the rate of loss of natural habitats including forests, establish a conservation target of 17% for terrestrial and inland water areas and 10% for marine and coastal areas, restore atleast 15% of degraded areas through conservation and restoration activities, make special efforts for conservation of coastal areas.BPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for BPCS Prelims and BPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by BPCS Notes are as follows:-
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