Describe the socio-economic condition of Harappan civilisation.

Indus valley is an example of great civilisation flourishing in the pre vedic era. The civilisation marks the zenith in terms of art, architecture and culture. Its magnanimous architecture depicts the vibrant social and culture life.

Social life:      Cities were divided into two parts. One was citadel (for the nobles) and the other part was common city depicting the hierarchy in the social milieu. There was strong sense of fashion including cosmetics and jewellery and it was common for both men and women. Various household articles made of pottery, stone, shells, ivory and metal have been found at Mohenjodaro. Spindles, needles, combs, fish hooks, knives are made of copper. Children’s toys include little clay carts. Marbles, balls and dice were used for games.

Mother earth was worshipped as Goddess. Nature worshipping was prevalent with people believing in ghosts and spirits. Amulets were  used to cast away bad spirits. Pashupati seal resembles the lord shiva of Vedic era. Absence of temples is there.


Economic life:  There was a great progress in all spheres of economic activity such as agriculture, industry and crafts and trade. Indus valley was both agrarian and industrial economy.  Specialized groups of artisans include goldsmiths, brickmakers, stone cutters, weavers, boat-builders and terracotta manufacturers. Bronze and copper vessels are the outstanding examples of the Harappan metal craft.

Internal trade was extensive with other parts of India. Foreign trade of barter type was mainly conducted with Mesopotamia, Afghanistan and Iran. Presence of seal in Mesopotamia testify the trade links. Trade was of the barter type.

Above characteristics clearly proves that the socio-economic condition was highly vibrant and dynamic of Indus valley and was way ahead of its times and it left a strong mark in world history.

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