Indian Money Market and Banking system is regulated by Reserve Bank of India.The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. Main Functions of RBI are as follows:- Monetary Authority: Formulates, implements and monitors the monetary policy. Objective: maintaining price … Read more Structure of Indian monetary and banking system in India
VAT is a multi-stage tax levied at each stage of the value addition chain, with a provision to allow input tax credit (ITC) on tax paid at an earlier stage, which can be appropriated against the VAT liability on subsequent sale. VAT is intended to tax every stage of sale where some value is added … Read more concept of VAT
Balance of Payments is a systematic record of all economic transactions undertaken by residents of one country i.e. households, firms and the government with their counterparts in rest of the world. It consists of: 1. Current Account, 2. Capital Account and 3. Reserve Account. The Current Account covers transactions in goods and services and transfers … Read more Composition and direction of India’s trade; Balance of payment problem
Fiscal policy is that part of Government policy which is concerned with raising revenues through taxation and other means along with deciding on the level and pattern of expenditure it operates through budget. However, generally the expenditure exceeds the revenue income of the Government. In order to meet this situation, the Government imposes new taxes … Read more Fiscal Policy : Concept and role of fiscal policy in achieving employment, stability and economic development.
Public expenditure is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc. Until the 19th century, public expenditure was limited as laissez faire philosophies believed that money left in private hands could bring better returns. In democracy, public expenditure is an expression of people’s will, … Read more Public Expenditure : Theories of public expenditure; causes of growth of public expenditure and its impact on economy; internal and external borrowings.
India has a well developed taxation structure. The tax system in India is mainly a three tier system which is based between the Central, State Governments and the local government organizations. In most cases, these local bodies include the local councils and the municipalities. According to the Constitution of India, the government has the right … Read more Public Revenue-Principles and types of taxation; direct, indirect, progressive and proportional
The Indian Government had undertaken industrial policy reforms since 1980, but the most radical reforms have occurred since 1991, after the severe economic crisis in fiscal year 1990-91. These reforms mainly aimed at enhancing the efficiency and international competitiveness in Indian industry. Growth in the industrial sector is one of the vital figures that affect … Read more Industrial Economy: Policy Initiative & charges
Evergreen Revolution was a term coined by M.S. Swaminathan to indicate the development of technologies that can help in increasing productivity in perpetuity without causing an associated ecological harm.He also stated that to achieve the goal of food security by ending hunger and to promote sustainable agriculture, it is important that in the field of social … Read more Ever Green Revolution and Rainbow revolution
The World Trade Organization came into being in 1995 as the successor organization to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second World War. It is a multilateral framework (an agreement among governments) for conduct of international trade in goods and services and also for protection of intellectual … Read more WTO and agriculture
Agricultural prices cover prices of agricultural products (output prices) and prices of requisites for agricultural production (input prices) at various stages of marketing. The structure of Indian agricultural marketing system consists of: Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Societies; Regulated Markets; Public Trading and Futures Trading. Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) while recommending the minimum support prices … Read more Pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs.