Preparation of Oxygen

Preparation of Oxygen Oxygen is prepared in lab generally in two ways either by the application of heat or no application of heat. Using heat: Oxygen in lab is prepared by heating the mixture of powdered potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide in the ratio 4:1 in a hard glass test tube. The oxygen gas is … Read more

Preparation of nitrogen

  Preparation of nitrogen Nitrogen is found in both free and combined states. It occupies 78.07% by volume. Nitrogen can be prepared: By heating copper in air: Firstly, air is passed through lime water and then concentrated sulphuric acid to make the air free from carbon dioxide and moistures respectively. The air contains only nitrogen … Read more

Minerals

Minerals Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical formula and general structure. Almost all chemical elements in the Earth’s crust are associated with at least one mineral. They vary in color, hardness, density, crystal form, crystal size, transparency, composition, location, and abundance. Some minerals are radioactive (uranophane), while others … Read more

Alloy

Alloy You might see the word alloy described as a “mixture of metals”, but that’s a little bit misleading because some alloys contain only one metal and it’s mixed in with other substances that are nonmetals (cast iron, for example, is an alloy made of just one metal, iron, mixed with one nonmetal, carbon). The … Read more

Urban spheres of influence and rural urban fringe

Urban spheres of influence and rural urban fringe Urban spheres of influence Urban spheres of influence reflect centre-to-hinterland relationship, compared with the non-central region, the centre assumes more complex economic functions, and provides more economic activities. Famous theoretical contributions to this research field are the Central Place Theory (Christaller, 1933), the extension to the Central … Read more

Planning commission and national development council

Planning commission and national development council Planning commission The Planning Commission was an institution in the Government of India, which formulated India’s Five-Year Plans, among other functions. Background Rudimentary economic planning, deriving from the sovereign authority of the state, was first initiated in India in 1938 by Congress President and Indian National Army supreme leader … Read more

National and state SC/ST commission

National and state SC/ST commission National SC commission National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) is an Indian constitutional body established with a view to provide safeguards against the exploitation of Scheduled Castes to promote and protect their social, educational, economic and cultural interests, special provisions were made in the Constitution.   Functions To investigate and … Read more

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