Respiratory Quotient

 Respiratory quotient: Carbohydrates, fats and protein The respiratory quotient (or RQ or respiratory coefficient), is a dimensionless number used in calculations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) when estimated from carbon dioxide production. It is calculated from the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the body to oxygen consumed by the body. Such measurements, … Read more


 Excretion:In plants Excretion, the process by which animals and plants rid themselves of waste products and of the nitrogenous by-products of metabolism. Through excretion organisms control osmotic pressure—the balance between inorganic ions and water—and maintain acid-base balance. The process thus promotes homeostasis, the constancy of the organism’s internal environment. Plants have no special … Read more

Types Of Respiration

 Types of respiration External Respiration One method for obtaining oxygen from the environment is through external respiration or breathing. In animal organisms, the process of external respiration is performed in a number of different ways. Animals that lack specialized organs for respiration rely on diffusion across external tissue surfaces to obtain oxygen. Others … Read more

Composition And Function Of Blood

 composition and function of blood Blood makes up about 8% of the human body weight. It contains erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes (platelets) and plasma. The volume percentage of all blood cells in the whole blood is about 45% of adults (hematocrit). The rest consists of liquid plasma (e.g. water, plasma proteins, electrolytes etc.). The … Read more

Food Safety And Microbial Standards, Food Quality Standards,

 Food safety and Microbial standards, Food quality standards Food safety-Indicators of food microbial Quality and safety-Coliforms, Enterococci, Bifidobacteria, Coliphages/Enteroviruses, predictive Microbiology/ Microbial modeling Microbial Standards of Processed and preserved Foods The Center for disease control (CDC) investigates each documented outbreak of food borne disease and attempts to determine not only the specific microorganisms … Read more

Food Bio Technology

 Food bio technology Biotechnology is defined in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, i.e. “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use” Biotechnology as applied to food processing in most developing countries makes use of microbial inoculants to … Read more


 Respiration Respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration is differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration, a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy … Read more

Types Of Asexual Reproduction

 Types of Asexual Reproduction Spores Some protozoans and many bacteria, plants and fungi reproduce via spores. Spores are structures naturally grown as part of an organism’s life cycle and designed for separation from the organism and dispersal via a medium such as air or water. When conditions are correct, the organism will release … Read more

Tuberculosis Programme

 Tuberculosis Programme TB was declared as a global health emergency in 1993. In the same year, India established the RNTCP as a small pilot project. This project was scaled up nationwide between 1998–2006. The overall vision of RNTCP is “A TB free India”—a situation in which TB is no longer a major public … Read more

Structure Of Flower And Reproduction Process

 Structure of flower and reproduction process The Female Reproductive Organ: The Carpel The female parts of a flower consist of an ovary, which contains one or more ovules, a style and the stigma. The ovary is at the base of the flower.  From the ovary, extends a tubular structure called the style and … Read more

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