Urban spheres of influence and rural urban fringe

Urban spheres of influence and rural urban fringe Urban spheres of influence Urban spheres of influence reflect centre-to-hinterland relationship, compared with the non-central region, the centre assumes more complex economic functions, and provides more economic activities. Famous theoretical contributions to this research field are the Central Place Theory (Christaller, 1933), the extension to the Central … Read more

Quality of life, life expectancy, literacy, standard of living and migration in India

Quality of life, life expectancy, literacy, standard of living and migration in India Human development—a comprehensive approach Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. But human development is also the objective, so it is both a process and an outcome. Human development implies that people must influence the processes that shape their lives. … Read more

Planning commission and national development council

Planning commission and national development council Planning commission The Planning Commission was an institution in the Government of India, which formulated India’s Five-Year Plans, among other functions. Background Rudimentary economic planning, deriving from the sovereign authority of the state, was first initiated in India in 1938 by Congress President and Indian National Army supreme leader … Read more

Nuclear Energy

  Introduction Global energy demand continues to climb as the industrialized world’s energy use rises, millions pull themselves out of poverty in developing countries, and the world population expands. Thus, the debate over the energy supply of the future intensifies. This debate is complicated by ongoing global climate destabilization as a result of green house … Read more

Immunity and Vaccination

Immunity is disease resistance and is of following two types:- Natural or Innate Immunity:- It is present from birth and is inherited from birth by the offspring from the mother.In this form of immunity the response from the organism against the pathogen is immediate in the form of non-specific immune response without the need of recognizing the … Read more

GPS Aided Geo Augmentation Navigation (GAGAN)

It is a planned implementation of Satellite Based Navigation System (SBNS) developed by Airports Authority of India (AAI) and ISRO. GAGAN is expected to provide a civil aeronautical navigation signal consistent with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and Recommended Practices as established by the Global Navigation Satellite System Panel. GAGAN was launched in August … Read more

Chandrayaan-1

Launch: October 22, 2008             Site: Satish Dhavan Space Centre, Sriharikota

The objectives of the programme were:

  1. To develop and orbit a spacecraft around moon using an Indian-made launch vehicle.
  2. To prepare a three-dimensional atlas of both the near and the far side of the moon.
  3. Chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface.
  4. To study the impact of Moon Impact Probe on the surface of the moon as a fore-runner to future soft landing missions.

NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) had on Chandrayaan-1 had detected water on the surface of moon. The mission was expected to last two years. However, the communication with the satellite was lost on 29 August 2009 and the mission was declared over. It lasted for 312 days and achieved 95 percent of its objectives.

Chandrayaan-1 was selected by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) as one of the recipients of its annual AIAA SPACE 2009 awards for contributions to space science and technology.

Read moreChandrayaan-1

Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

SDO is a NASA mission launched on February 11, 2010 which will observe the sun for over five years. The observatory is a part of the living with a star program. SDO’s goal is to understand the sun’s influence on earth and near-earth space by studying the solar atmosphere on small scales of space and … Read more

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