Biotechnology: Introduction of Biotechnology, its potential to improve human life and national economy through agriculture (biofertilizers, biopesticides, biofuels, genetically modified crops), industrial development and employment generation. Areas of application -pharmaceuticals, human healthcare, food technology, energy generation etc.

Biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make best use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Modern biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environmental footprint, feed the hungry, … Read more

BIOMOLECULES

  There is vast diversity of living organisms. The chemical compositon and metabolic reactions of the organisms appear to be similar. The composition of living tissues and non-living matter also appear to be similar in qualitative analysis.Closer analysis reveals that the relative abundance of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen is higher in living system.  All forms … Read more

Structure and function of animal cell and cell organelles

  Objects having characteristics of cellular organization, growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and give response are living organisms. There are some important features of living organisms: It should grow, which means its structure changes as time goes by in an advantageous manner. It should show adaptation to the environment. It should maintain some balanced … Read more

Consumer protection

      Consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace. The laws are designed to prevent the businesses that engage in fraud or specified unfair practices from gaining an advantage over competitors. They may also provide additional protection for those most vulnerable … Read more

Integrity in Administration including measures and mechanism for Prevention of Corruption and Malpractices in India.

  Integrity   Integrity is one of the most important and oft-cited of virtue terms. The concept of integrity has to do with perceived consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations and outcome. When used as a virtue term, “integrity” refers to a quality of a person’s character. Some people see integrity as the … Read more

SAMADHAN Scheme

On 26 January 2013, the Uttarakhand government had launched a portal for online registration of people’s complaints and their quick redressal. Launching the portal called “Samadhan” (solution), the thenUttarakhand Chief Minister Vijay Bahuguna described it as a step towards transparency. The CM assured the people that he will personally monitor the the functioning of the … Read more

BUDGETARY REFORMS    

Government bodies raise money by imposing taxes on citizens and then use those funds to pursue various programs such as education, defence, infrastructure and research and development. A government’s budget describes all of its sources of income and where it spends that income, and budget reform is the process of making changes to how the … Read more

Right To Service    

Delivering public services in a time bound, decentralised and citizen friendly manner has been one of the major challenges facing the administration wing of the government.   Right to Public Services legislation in India comprises statutory laws which guarantee time-bound delivery of various public services rendered to citizens and provides mechanism for punishing the errant … Read more

Citizen Centric Governance

    The “key word” to be used in this is the “citizens engagement” in the various phases of the service definition, development, refining and monitoring, and the whole concept of user-centric services is based on “putting the citizen (user) at the centre of innovative services” starting from enabling of a specific procedure: citizens shall … Read more

E Governance

The “e” in e-Governance stands for ‘electronic’. Thus, e-Governance is basically associated with carrying out the functions and achieving the results of governance through the utilization of ICT (Information and Communications Technology), So it is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services … Read more

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