DMPQ-How does ENSO (El-Nino southern oscillation) phenomenon effects Monsoon in India ?

. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregular cycle of change in wind and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Nino and the cooling phase as La Nina. This sea temperature oscillation is accompanied by an oscillation in the weather patterns in the tropical western Pacific.

The monsoon influences environmental conditions in much of Asia, hence impacting most of the densely populated region of our planet. Differential heating of the north Indian Ocean and the north west Pacific Ocean and of the Indian landmasses, causes the seasonal reversal of monsoon wind. In summer this wind blows from the oceans to India, getting huge amounts of moisture over the neighboring land. This ensuing heavy rainfall can have devastating consequences for human lives and living beings. Conversely, agriculture in India and Asia depends on the monsoon rain, and the amount of nutrients in ocean surface waters is influenced by the monsoon and is essential to the success of fisheries. And El Nino widely affects the monsoon system.

The Indian summer monsoon prevails over the Indian region for four months from June to September, in which it varies significantly temporally and spatially. In an agricultural country like India, the extreme departure from normal seasonal rainfall seriously affects the agricultural output and thus the economy of the country. It has been established that Indian summer monsoon is a fully coupled land-atmosphere-ocean system and that it is linked to ocean temperature variability. Past studies have revealed that the interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall is linked to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomena directly.The Indian summer monsoon prevails over the Indian region for four months from June to September, in which it varies significantly temporally and spatially. In an agricultural country like India, the extreme departure from normal seasonal rainfall seriously affects the agricultural output and thus the economy of the country. It has been established that Indian summer monsoon is a fully coupled land-atmosphere-ocean system and that it is linked to ocean temperature variability. Past studies have revealed that the interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall is linked to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomena directly.

 

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