DMPQ-What is Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). How does it effects India’s climate.

The Inter Tropical  Convergence Zone (ITCZ) or Thermal Equator is a broad trough of low pressure in  equatorial latitudes (it always remains on the north of the equator due to effect of  landmass). This is where the northeast and the southeast trade winds converge and this  is a low pressure zone. This convergence zone lies more or less parallel to the equator  but moves north or south with the apparent movement of the sun. At the time of  monsoons, it shifts towards north (towards India) and hence attracts moisture laden  winds.

According to meteorologists, Monsoon is the result of the shift of the ITCZ under  the influence of the vertical sun towards Tropic of Cancer. The ITCZ being the zone of  lowest pressure in the tropical region, is the target destination for the Trade winds of  both the hemispheres. Consequentially, with ITCZ at the Tropic of cancer (over Indian  peninsula), the South East Trade winds of the Southern Hemisphere have to cross the  equator to reach the ITCZ. However, due to Coriolis Effect, these South East trade winds  are deflected eastwards in the Northern Hemisphere transforming into South West  trades. These pick up the moisture while traveling from sea to land and cause  orographic rain once they hit the highlands of the Indian Peninsula. This results in the  South-West Monsoon.

 

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