DMPQ: Congress tilted towards socialism and communism ideology post 1930 and started bringing the issues of the peasants in front of British. But congress ministries formed during 1937 were not able to unleash radical changes. Discuss. (History)

There were certain basic constraints before the congress ministries could undertake a complete overhaul of the agrarian structure by completely abolishing zamindari.  These constraints were:


  • The ministries did not have adequate powers.
  • There were inadequate financial resources as a lion’s share was appropriated by the Government of India.
  • Strategy of class adjustments was another hurdle since zamindars, etc. had to be conciliated and neutralised.
  • There was constraint of time since the logic of congress politics was confrontation and not cooperation with colonialism.
  • War clouds had started hovering around 1938.
  • The reactionary second chamber dominated by landlords, moneylenders and capitalist in United provinces, Bihar, Bombay, Madras and Assam had to be conciliated as its support was necessary for legislations.
  • The agrarian structure was too complex and complicated.



In spite of these constraints, the congress ministries manage to legislate a number of laws relating to land reforms, debt relief, forest grazing fee, arrears of rent, land tenures etc.


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