Medieval India

   North India   
Ghadvalas  Chandradeva*. Jaichandra fought Muhammad Ghur
Chandellas of Jejakabhukti/Bundelkhand *Vidyadhara* & Yashovarman 
Paramaras of Malwa Vakpati Munjal & *Bhoja* 
Chahamanas/Chauhans of Sakambhari Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva, *Prithviraj III* (Chauhan)
Kalachuris of Tripuri Kokalla, Gangeyadeva & *Karna* (Rajshekhara)
Chalukyas/Solankis of Gujarat Bhima I & *Jayasimha Siddharaja* 
Kashmir  Avantivarman (supplanted Karkota dynasty to which
   belonged Lalitaditya Muktapida. 
 East & the North East   
Bengal (Sena dynasty) Lakshmanasena (last Hindu ruler of Bengal)
Orissa  Avantavarman Chodaganga (Mother daughter of Rajendra
   Chola) of Eastern Gangas & Narsimha I (sun temple)
Assam (Ahoms) Ahoms, a Shan tribe settled in mid 13th Century.
 Deccan & the South   
Chalukyas of Kalyani *Vikramaditya VI* (Introduced Chalukya-Vikram era)
   Bilhana’s Vikramanankadevacharita is based on him
Yadavas of Devagiri Bhillama V*, *Simhana* 
Kakatiyas of Warangal Ganapati (ruled for 60 years) 
Cholas  Vijayalaya*, Rajaraja the Great, *Rajendra I*, Rajadhiraja,
   Rajendra II, Kulottunga I 
Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra Nrpakama*, Vishnuvardhan, Ballala II & Ballala III
Pandyas  *Jatavarman Sundara.Pandya I* 
 Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD) 
Slave Dynasty  Sayyid Dynasty 
1206-10Qutubuddin Aibak.  1412-20 Khizr Khan
1210-36Shamsuddin Iltutmish  1420-33 Mubarak Shah
1237-41Razia Sultana  1433-43 Muhammad Shah
1241-46Bahram Shah & Masud Shah1443-51 Alauddin Alam Shah
1246-66Nasirruddin Mahmud  Lodhi Dynasty 
1266-86Balban  1451-89 Bahlul Lodhi
1286-90Kaikhusrau, Kaiquabad & Kaimur1489-1517 Sikander Lodhi
Khalji Dynasty  1517-26 Ibrahim Lodhi
1290-96Jallaluddin Khalji     
1296-1316Allauddin Khalji     
1316-20Mubarak Shah & Khusrau khan   
Tughlaq Dynasty     
1320-25Ghiasuddin Tughlaq     
1325-51Muhammad bin Tughlaq     
1351-88Firuz Shah Tughlaq     
1388-94Mohammad Khan, Ghiasuddin Tughlaq Shah II,   
 Abu Baqr, Nasiruddin Muhammad, Humayun   
1394-12Nasirrudin Mahmud Tughlaq   


  Delhi Sultanate   
SlaveQutbuddinDied while playing Chaugan. Aram Shah (short period) 
 ShamsuddinHe defeated Yalduz of Ghazni & Qubacha of Multan. Captured the
 Iltutmishfort  of  Ranthambor,  Lakhnauti.  Organized  the  iqta  system  (land
  assignment) & currency (introduced copper tanka & silver jital).
 Razia SultanaMarried  Malik  Altunia  (Governor  of  Bhatinda).  Turkish  Aamirs
  played  the dominant  role  &  after Razia,  they enthroned  Bahram
  Shah, Masud Shah & Nasiruddin Mahmud in that order. 
 Balban (UlughBalban  was  Turkish  slave  of  Iltutmish.  He  poisoned  his  master
 Khan)Nasiruddin Mahmud. Killed the rebel governor of Bengal, Tughril
  Khan.  He  revived  the  practice  of  sijda  (prostration)  &  paibos
  (kissing monarch’s feet).   
  Kaikhusrau, Kaiquabad & Kaimurs had short duration. 
KhaljiJalaluddin KhaljiDescended at the age of seventy. Later Alauddin murdered his uncle
  & father in law Jalaluddin & seized the throne. 
 Alauddin KhaljiLay  seige  to  Ranthambor  which  was  under  redoubtable  Hammir
  Deva  which  continued  till  one  year.  Later  Chittor  under  Ratan
  Singh (wife Padmini) fell & was renamed Kizhrabad. Malik Kafur
  (Dwarasamudra) & Pandyas. Mubarak Shah (son) & Khusrau khan
  had short rule.    
  Kharaj  (land  tax  –  50%),  Charai,  Gharii  (dwelling  tax).  First  to
  introduce permanent standing army, dagh &   chehra. Afghans &
  Sultan’s Indian officers rose to prominence. 
TughlaqGhiyasuddinEarlier called Ghazi Malik. Ghiasuddin had repelled mongol attack
 Tughlaqunder khaljis before ascending throne. Attaked Kaktiyas & Bengal
  succesfully. Founded third city of Delhi – Tughlaqabad. 
 Muhammad binOpen consorting with Hindus & Jogis. Killed Ulemas, qazis who
 Tughlaqrose in rebellion. Shifted capital to Devagiri (renamed Daulatabad),
  token currency (bronze coin-jittal). Shifted to Swargadwari during
  famine. At his death Barani commented, ‘at last the people got rid
  of him & he got rid of the people’. First sultan to visit the shrine of
  Moinuddin Chisti. Disciple of Shaikh Alauddin & Jinaprabha Suri.
 Firuz ShahNot a military leader. Conqured Thatta, Orissa (uprooted Jagannath
 Tughlaqidol),  Nagarkot.  Distributed  iqtas, made  them heritable increased
  salaries.   Founded   Fatehabad,   Hissar,   Firuzpur,   Jaunpur   &
  Firuzabad. Built canals. Influence of Ulema revived. First muslim
  ruler to impose Jaziya on Brahmins but abolished Ghari & Charai.
  Visited  the  shrine  of  Salar  Masud  Ghazi  &  became  fanatical.
  Removed   paintings   from   palace.   Got   many   sanskirt   works
  translated in Persian   










  South India
VijaynagarHarihara &These brothers were released by Muhammad Tughlaq & they laid
 Bukkathe foundation of Vijaynagar empire (Sangama dynasty)
 Deva Raya ISucceded  his  father  Harihara  II.  Lead  a  crushing  defeat  against
  Sultan  Firuz  Shah  Bahmani.  Constuction  of  dam  across  the
  Tungabhadra. Italian, Nicolo de Conti came during his period.
 Deva Raya IISometimes called Immadi Deva Raya. One of the greatest Sultan.
BahamaniFiruz ShahGreat king. Lost to Deva Raya I & abdicated throne in favour of his
 Bahmanbrother Ahmad Shah I who transferred Bahmani Kingdom capital
  from  Gulbarga  to  Bidar.  Later  with  the  help  of  Iranian  prime
  minister Mahmud Gawan, Ahmad Shah I expanded considerably.
  Later Bhahmani kingdom got divied into five regions – Golconda,
  Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Berar & Bidar.
Tuluva*Kishna DevaAfter Deva Raya II came Suluva dyansty, which was replaced by
 Raya*Tuluva dynasty whose geatest ruler was Krishna Deva Raya. Ablest
  of Vijaynagar soverigns. After him Rama Raja succeded.
  Delhi Sultanate Continued
TimurTimur 1398 ADDuring the reign of Mahmud Tughlaq who fled the city. He
Invastion assigned Delhi to Khizr Khan & hence Sayyid dynasty was born.
SayyidsKhizr KhanKhizr Khan’s reign as well as that of his successors, Mubarak Shah,
  Muhammad Shah & Alauddin Alam Shah was spent trying to
  control the rebellious leaders (esp. Khokhars led by Jasrath).
LodisBahlul LodiFirst dynasty to be headed by Afghans. Principal event of Bahlul
  Lodi’s life was the annexation of Juanpur kingdom.
 Sikander LodiContemporary of Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat & Rana Sanga of
  Mewar. The rent rolls of his reign formed the basis during Sher
  Shah Suri period. Imposed the Jaziya. The Bahluli coin remained in
  circulation till Akbar’s rule. He was the only sultan to be killed in
  the battle field.
  Smaller States
AssamAhoms – Greatest ruler during this peiod was Suhungmung
GujaratMuzaffar’s Shah grandson, Ahmad Shah I founded new capital Ahmedabad. Was the
 first sultan to levy Jaziya on hindus of Gujarat. *Mahmud Begarha* was the greatest
MewarRana Kumbha. His grandson was Rana Sanga.
AmberUnder Prithviraj who fought under Rana Sanga at Khanua
JaunpurUnder Sharquis. Jaunpur is in eastern U.P.
Kashmir*Zianul Abidin*. Abolished Jaziya. Got Ramayana & Mahabharata translated into
 Persian. Allowed Kashmiri pandits to return to the state.













 Mughal Empire
BaburZahiruddin  Muhammad  Babur.  Ascended  throne  of  Farghana.  Daulat  Khan  Lodi,
1526-30govenror of Punjab invited him to dethrone Ibrahim Lodi but later retracted. Ibrahim Lodi
 perished in 1526 at Panipat. Battle of Khanua in 1527 against Rana Sanga in which Babur
 won by effective use of artillery & mounted archers. Died around 1529 & burried at
 Kabul. Introduced Char Bagh (symmetric gardens).
HimayunHis early fight was with Bahadur Shah of Gujarat whom he defeated but did not depose.
1530-56In  Bihar  the  Afghans  rallied  under  Sher  Shah  Suri.  At  the  battle  of  Chausa  in  1939
 Himayun was defeated by Sher Shah. He finally left India in 1544 for the Safavid court. A
 decade after the death of Sher Shah, Himayun occupied back Delhi but died within seven
 months after a fall from the steps of his library.
Sher ShahSon of a small Jagirdar from Jaunpur. Defeated Raja Maldeo of Marwar in the battle of
1540-45Samel in 1544 & also won Chittor. He realized Jaziya from Hindus. Revived system of
 Dagh & Chehra. Introduced a system of crop rates form the first time. Introduced uniform
 standard gold, silver & copper coins replacing the debased coins & introduced uniform
 weights. Maintained army through Sawars. Died in 1545 (5 years rule).
AkbarBorn  in  Amarkot.  Bairam  Khan  invited  Hemu  (Afhan  assumed  title  of  Hemchandra
1556-1605Vikramaditya) in 1556 at the second battle of Panipat in which Hemu was slained. Later
 Akbar discharged Bairam Khan & married his widow. Akbar’s foster mothers son Adam
 Khan  won  Malwa  defeating  Baz  Bahadur.  Won  at  Gondwana,  Chittor  (Udai  Sing),
 Ranthambor & Marwar. Rana Pratap ascended Mewar after the death of Udai Singh. In
 1576 the Haldi ghati war between Man Singh (grandson of Bhara Mal of Amber who
 entered imperial services) & Rana Pratap. In 1571 Akbar shifted his capital to Fatehpur
 Sikri.  Later  marched  against  Ahmedabad,  Kabul  (deposed  Mirza  Hakim).  In  1585  he
 trasnferred his capital to Lahore. Later won Baluchistan, Qandhar, Ahmadnagar (Chand
 Bibi), Khandesh (Akbar’s last major miliary campaign). In 1579 he abolished Jaziya. He
 issued Mahzar which entitle him to choose one of the interpretations of Muslim law. Only
 Raja Birbal accepted Din-i-Ilahi. Todar Mal, Bhagwan das, Man Singh declined it. He
 abolished the position of wazir after Bairam khan. Revived chehra & dagh.
JehangirJehangir’s elder brother Khusrau revolted thrice against Akbar & was blinded. He became
1605-27the  first  ruler  to  conquer  Kangra.  Amar  Singh,  Son  of  Rana  Pratap  at  Ajmer  also
 surrendered. The Persians got control of Qandhar back in their second attempt. Deccan
 (ruled by Malik Ambar of Ahmadnagar) was subdued again by prince Khurram. Jehangir
 ordered the murder of fifth sikh guru Arjun Dev (the first to be murdered by Mughals).
 Visited dargah of Moinuddin Chisti several times. Married Iranian widow (Mehrunisa),
 who was given the title Nur Jahan.  Nur Jahan’s brother was Asaf khan whose daughter
 Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Banu) was married to Shah Jahan.
ShahSent his two sons Dara  Shukoh& Aurangzeb as hostages to his fathers court. He was
Jahanhelped in his throne capture by his father in law, Asaf Khan. Ordered execution of his
1628-58brothers  &  their  sons  after  accession.  Increased  control  over  Bundelkhand  (Ruled  by
 Jehangir’s hard core friend Bir Singh Deo’s son Jujhar Singh). Qandhar was capture for a
 brief period but lost back to the Safavids. His Peacock throne & capital Shahjahanabad are
 remembered. Reformed the zat & sawar system. Iranis & Turanis dominated the nobility.
 Instituted month scales on the basis of difference between official estimate of income
 (Jama) & actual amount collected (hasil).
AurangzebWar of succession between Dara, Shah Shuja, Auranzeb & Murad – all sons of Mumtaz
1658-1707Mahal. Mir Jumla was deputed by Aurangzeb to restore authority in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
 Later in Assam Ahom king agreed to be a vassal of Mughals. He banned Nauroz, the


Persian new year, banned painters, musicians, drinking & women pilgrimage. Pilgrimage tax on Hindu abolished by Akbar reinstated. Destroyed the Keshava Rai Temple at Mathura built by Bir Singh Bundela.Reimposed Jaziya tax. His son prince Akbar revolted


  • was sheltered by Maratha ruler Sambhaji. Aurangzeb lay seize on Bijapur & Golconda


  • He was also known as Alamgir.


ShivajiShivaji tutor was Dadaji Kond-deva. Shivaji killed Afzal Khan (general of Ali Adil Shah
 II) while meeting. Later he almost defeated the governor of the Deccan, Shaista Khan who
 was replaced by Prince Mauzzam on orders of Aurangzeb. Raja Jai Singh was given the
 responsibility of tackling Shivaji who won & conducted the treaty of Purandhar. Later
 Shivaji visited mughal court & was captured but escaped.
LaterShivaji – Sambhaji – Rajaram (Sambhaji’s brother). In the meanwhile Sambhaji’s son
MarathasShahu was taken to the Mughal household. Later when Rajaram died, his widow Tara Bai
 declared her four year old son Shivaji II, king & herself the regent. Later Shahu was
 released by Bahadur Shah I who appointed Balaji Vishwanath as Peshwa. Baji Rao I
 succeded  who  was  the  most  charismatic  leader  in  Maratha  history  after  Shivaji.He
 conquered Malwa, Bundelkhand & even raided Delhi. He was succeded by his son  Balaji
 Baji Rao (Nana Saheb – different from the later Nana Saheb, adopted son of Baji Rao II)
 who defeated the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Maratha however received a terrible blow at
 the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761 at Panipat.
    Selective Treaties & Battles  
Treaty of Purandhar Jai Singh defeated Shivaji. Shivaji had to surrender 23 out of the thirty
    five forts held by him.  
Treaty of Palkhed Nizam of Hyderabad was forced to recognize Maratha claimsto chauth
    & sardeshmuhi in the Deccan (durin Baji Rao I’s tenure).
Treaty of Warna Claims of Tara Bai settled by granting her Kolhapur
Treaty of Bhalke Marathas won large parts of Khandesh by invading Karnataka.
Battle of Talikota (1565) Between Vijayanagara Empire (Rama Raya, son of Achutya Raya) and
    Deccan sultanates, resulted in Vijayanagar’s defeat.
    Books of Medieval Period  
 1.Taj-ul-Maasir Hasan Nizami 
 2.Tabaqat-i-Nasiri Minhaj Siraj 
 3.Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi (Most important work of sultanate period)Ziauddin Barani 
 4.Futuh-us-Salatin (establishment of Bahmani Kingdom)Isami 
 5.Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi Afif 
 6.Tarikh-i-Mubarak ShahiYahya Sirhindi 
 7.Akbar Nama Abul Fazal 
 8.Tabaqat-I-Akbari Nizammudin Ahmad 
 9.Muntakhab-al-tawarikh Badauni 
 10Badshahnama/PadshahnamaAbdul Hamid Lahori 
 11Muntakhab-ul Lubab (Aurangzeb’s reign)Khafi Khan 
 12Mirat-i-Ahmadi Ali Muhammad Khan 
 13Padmavat (on Padmini – wife of Ratan Singh, King of Chittor)Malik Mohammad Jaisi 
 14Tughluq Nama, Tarik-i-Alai, Nuh Sipihr, AshiqaAmir Khusro 
 15Marwar ra Pargani ri Vigat (Info on Rajasthan)Munhta Nainsi 


16ChandayanMaulana Daud
17Himayun NamaGulbadan Begum
18Bhavartha DipikaGyaneshwara
19Safarnama or RihlaIbn Batuta
20Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri (Autobiography)Jehangir
21Tarikh-i-ShershahiAbbas Sarwani
22Tuzuk-i-Baburi/ Baburnama (in Turkish –Autobiography)Babur
23ShahjahannamaInayat Khan
24DayabhagaJimuta Vahna
25Periya Puranam (12th book of Tamil Veda called Tirumurai)Shekkilar
26Sur Sagar (Life of Krishna)Sur Das
27History of Aurangzeb, The fall of the Mughal EmpireJadunath Sarkar
28Mahmud of GhazniMohammad Habib
29The Administration of the Delhi SultanateI.H. Qureshi
30Foundation of Muslim Rule in IndiaA.B.M. Habibullah
31Agrarian System of Mughal IndiaIrfan Habib


Monuments of Medieval Period
College of Ajmer (Converted to Adhai din ka Jhompra)Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva
Rudra Mahakala temple, SiddhapuraJayasimha Siddharaja
Jagannath Temple at PuriAnantavarman Chodaganga
Sun Temple, KonarkNarasimha I ( E. Gangas)
Brihadesvara/Rajarajeswara temple at ThanjavurRajaraja the Great
Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, DelhiQutbuddin Aibak
Adhai din ka JhompraQutbuddin Aibak
Himayun’s TombAkbar’s step mother Haji Begum
Tomb of Sher Shah at SasaramSher Shah
Agra FortAkbar
Buland Darwarza (commemorate Gujarat victory)Akbar
Shalimar GardenShah Jahan
Badshahi Mosque at Lahore (largest in subcontinent)Aurgangzeb
Man Mandir, GwaliorMan Singh
Hauz KhasAlauddin Khalji
Akbar’s Mausoleum at SikandaraAkbar. Completed by Jehangir.
Madrasa at BidarMahmud Gawan


  Kings & their Court Jewels
1.LakshmansenaJayadeva, Halayudha, Sridharadasa.
2.Vikramaditya VI (Chalukya)Bilhana (Vikramanankadevacharita) Vijnanaeshvara (Mitakshara)
3.Sharqis of JaunpurMalik Muhammad Jaisi
4.AkbarTansen, Todar Mal, Tulsidas (just contemporary)














     Prominent Foreign Travellers 
 1. Marco Polo Venetian Traveller visited Pandya kingdom 
 2. Ibn Batuta Muhammad bin Tughlaq 
 3. Nicolo Conti Italian visited Vijayanagar during the reign of Deva Raya I 
 4. Abdur Razaq Visited the court of Zamorin in Calicut & travelled to Vijaynagar 
      during the reign of Deva Raya II 
 5. Nikitin  Russian, visited Bahmani kingdom & Gujarat 
 6. Nuniz  Portuguese, stayed at Vijayanagar during Krishna Deva Raya 
 7. Ralph Fitch British during Akbar’s reign 
 8. William Hawkins English merchant. Received a mansab from Jehangir 
 9. Thomas Roe Ambassador of English King James I to Jehangir’s court. 
      Obtained trade concessions. Wrote “Embassy”. 
 10. Peter Mundy English traveller during Shah Jahan’s reign. 
 11. Tavernier French jweller. Aurangzeb’s reign. 
 12. Bernier  French Physician. Most important account of all European. 
      Aurangzeb’s reign. Wrote ‘Travels in the Mughal Empire’. 
 13. Nicolo Manucci Italian. Aurangzeb’s reign. 
      Jargon of Medieval Period 
 MamlukWhite slaves UrCommon village assembly (Chola  period) 
 MuqaddamVillage head NagaramAssembly of merchants (Chola  period) 
 Sondharloans SabhaAssembly of Brahmins (Chola  period) 
 KhotsVillage head KhutbaA sermon made in Friday mosque 
 ShariaMuslim law Madad-i-MaashTax free grants of land 
 SubasProvinces WaqfGrants to muslim religious establishment 
 Mir BakshiMilitary department ParganaAround Hundred villages. 
 UmmahMuslim believers Sadr us sadurEcclesiastical affairs 
 Mir SamanSupply department QanungosKeeper of revenue records 
 ShiqdarHeaded Pargana. ZabtRevenue based on land measurement 
 AmilsRevenue officer Ibadat KhanaHouse of worship (Fatehpur Sikri) 
 HundisBills of Exchange DiwanFunction of finance (Akbar’s time) 
 DhimmisNon-Muslim people WujuhatTaxes on cattle,grazing,orchards. 
 VimansTowers of temple ShaikhzadasIndian Muslims nobility 
 Din Religion PeshwaPrime minister (Shivaji) 
 Ganj A grain market AmatyaRevenue minister (Shivaji) 
 GomashtaCommercial agent SumantForeign minister (Shivaji) 
 Hun A gold coin BargirCavalrymen (horse belonged to leader) 
 Dam Coin (1/4th of rupee) NankarPortion of revenue given to Zamidar 
 SarkarA number of Paragana Diwan-i-ArzMinistry of Military Affairs 
 KhumsTax on plunder Diwan-i-InshaMinistry of Royal Correspondences 
 ZawabitNon Shariat state laws Diwan-i-RisalatReligiour affairs 
 FaujdarIncharge of Sarkar Diwan-i-KulWazir or chief imperial fiscal minister. 
 MalfuzatSayings of sufi saint Diwan-i-WizaratDepartment of finance 
 TankahSilver coin KhalisaLand revenue directly for imperial treasury 
 KanqahSufi lodging WilayatSpiritual territory of a sufi 
 Misl Sikh Regions  (12) UmraCollective term for nobility 
       WatandarDesais & Deshmukh (collective term) 


Extent of Mughal Empire at Akbar’s Death

Miscellaneous Facts:


1.Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 AD. The Quran alongwith the Hadith (sayings of the prophet) is venerated as supreme sources of authority in Islam. Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina is known as Hijra & the muslim calendar commences from this year. At the battle of Badr Muhammad first wielded sword to assert his prophethood. Quibla the direction to be faced during prayer changed from Jerusalem to Mecca.


2.Prophet’s son-in-law Ali was regarded as lawful immediate by some section (shiis) while other group considered his close followers Abu Bakr, Umar & Uthman as legal heir (came to be known as Sunnis).


3.Mahmud of Ghazni was the son of Subuktigin (founder of Ghaznavid dynasty). Subuktgin had defeated the Hindhshahi ruler Jaipal. Utbi was the court historian of Ghazni. Mahmud raided 17 times which






included Nagarkot, Mathura, Kanauj & Somanath temple (1025 AD when Chalukya king Bhima I was ruling Gujarat). He patronized Al-Beruni.


4.Muhammad Ghur first invasion was against Multan which he won easily. His invasion of Gujarat ended in a crushing defeat at the hands of the Chalukyan forces. Then followed Battle of Tarain I & II, invasion of Ghadavala ruled by Jaichandra. After Ghur’s death his senior slave Tajuddin Yalduz occupied Ghazni, Qubacha occupied Multan, Ali Mardan took Lakhnauti (Bihar-Bengal) while Aibak took Delhi. At the same time Bhaktiyar Khalji, another slave raided province of Bihar destroying monasteries of Nalanda & Vikramshila & even attacked the Bengal ruler Lakshmanasena. Eastern Chalukyas ruled at Vengi.


5.Chola king Rajendra I captured whole of Sri Lanka & reasserted Chola soverignity over Kerala & Pandyan country. He conquered north upto Ganga & assumed the title of Gangaikonda. Marco Polo visited the Pandyan Kingdom around 1293 AD.


6.Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s reign saw the rise of two independent states in south – Vijaynagar & Bahamani. The Tungabhadra doab had been a source of conflict between the Cholas & the western Chalukyas, between Yadavas & Hoysalas as well as between the Vijaynagar & the Bahmani Kindom.


7.The largest indigenous industry during the Delhi sultanate period was that of textiles. During Firuz Shah the slaves rose to an all time high. While India’s indigenous architecture is trabeate (space spanned by beams laid horizontally), the Islamic form is arcuate (arches are used to bridge a space).


8.All the Lodi rulers were buried on the Bagh-i-Jud known today as Lodi Garden. The coins of Mahmud Ghazni, Iltutmish, Nasirudin Mahmud, Balban, Alauddin Khalji bear the name of Abbasid Caliph.


  1. Mansabdars had dual ranks – zat (personal rank & expenses) & sawar (cavalry rank). Land revenue systems were batai (crop divided between state & the peasant), hast-o-bud (official inspection for estimation), kankut system (estimation of land & yield), nasaq system (based on previous estimates).


  1. The sants of the Vithoba cult & their followers called Varkari emphasized annual pilgrimage to Pandharpur (Mahrashtra). The most important saint was Jnaneshvar. Saguna Bhakti (Tulsi Das, Chaitanya, Surdas, Mirabai, Nimbarka& Vallabha) believed in doctrine of incarnation while Nirguna bhakti (Kabir) worshiped formless aspect of divinity.


  1. Guru Angad developed the Gurmukhi script. Guru Arjun Dev completed Adi Granth. Guru Hargobind constructed the Akal Takht at the Golden Temple & asked his followers to built the fort of Lohgarh. Enraged Jehangir had the Guru imprisoned for 2 years.


  1. Of the various Sufi orders in India the Chishti (founder was Moinuddin Chisti) & Suharawadi (Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya whose Khanqah at Multan became an important pilgrimage centre) orders (silsilas)






were the most prominent. Other prominent saints were Shaikh Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki & Nizamuddin


Auliya. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (Naqshbandi order) was contemporary of Jehangir.


  1. There was no Maratha in Akbar’s nobility & only one in that of Jehangirs. In Aurangzeb’s time the Marathas increased considerably & foreign nobility declined. Dara Shukoh brother of Auranzeb got 52 Upanishads converted into Persian, the collective work being known as the Sirr-i-Akbar. Murshid Quli Khan was a talented revenue officer during the time of Shah Jahan who helped prince Aurangzegb streamline the revenues in Deccan.


  1. Uprisings during Aurangzeb period were Jats (Gokula, Rajaram, Churaman & Surajmal-the adopted son of Badan Singh), Satnami, Sikhs (Guru Harkishan summoned to Delhi – Bangla Sahib is the site where he resided; Guru Teg Bahadur was beheaded at present Sis Ganj Gurudwara site; Guru Gobind Singh born in Patna), Bundelas of Ochha (under Chhatrasal)


  1. On Baisakhi day in 1699, Guru Gobind Singh established the Khalsa panth. In the succession that followed after Aurangzeb, Govind Singh supported Bahadur Shah in the hope of getting justice against Wazir Khan (who killed Guru’s son) but all in vain. Gobind Singh appointed Banda Bahadur (later kille Wazir khan) to wage war against the mughals but he failed & was humiliated before being executed.


  1. Shivaji assumed titles of Chhatrapati, Gobrahmance Pratipalak (protector of cows & Brahmins). His consecration marked the commencement of a new era, the Rajyabhisheka saka.


  1. Bengal was the main silk centre. Land owner ship was Khudkhasta (Owner & land in the same village), Pahikashta (different village) & Muqarari raiya (He leased his spare land to tenants called muzarin). During mughal period there is no evidence of joint ownership of land. Slave trade focus shifted from Multan to Kabul. Freshly minted coins had a greater value than those minted in previous regimes.


  1. Thomas Roe went to Jehangirs court to get concessions for operation. Dutch obtained a farman from the Sultan of Golconda to operate at Masulipatnam.


  1. The Mughal school of painting began with Himayun & reached its pinnacle during Jehangir. Himayun also started the Mina Bazar for royal ladies.



Miscellaneous Facts from Mocks:


  1. Qutbuddin Aibak was not recognized by the Caliph of Baghdad. Kashmir was never a part of sultanate of Delhi. ‘Janam Sakhis’ are the biographical writings abouth the Sikh gurus. The utterances of Namdev, Kabir, Ravidas, Shaikh Fariduddin Masud (Sufi Saint), Dhanna have been included in Adi Granth. Printing press was introduced in India by the Portuguese.






  1. The most important system of land revenue was the Zabti system. The term ‘Urs’ referred to the death anniversary of a Sufi saint. The Sisodiyas of Mewar did not submit to Akbar during his reign. Shahjahan did not write his autobiography. Bairagis in India were a Vaishnavite sect.


  1. Portuguese-Dutch-English-French was the correct sequence of foreigners coming to India. In medieval period Polaj was the most fertile land & banjar the least fertile.


  1. Bijapur (Adil Shahi Dynasty), Ahmadnagar (Nizamshahi dynasty), Golkonda (Qutbshahi dynasty), Bidar (Barid Shahi dynasty).


  1. Delhi Sultanate reached its maximum limit during Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Invasion of Chengiz Khan (Iltutmish reign), Invations of Tarmahirin (Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s reign), Invasion of Nadir Shah (Muhammad Shah) & Invasion of Timur (Nasiruddin Mahmud Tughlaq).


  1. Mir Syed Ali, Daswant & Khwaja Abdus Samad were famous painters at the court of Himayun & Akbar. Mansur & Bishan Das were leading court painters under Jehangir. The translation of Mahabharata in Persian (Razmnama) was carried out during the reign of Akbar by Faizi. Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur s built over the tomb of Muhammad Adil Shah.


  1. The dominant form of decoration employed in the buildings of the sultanate period is called arabesque. Various regional languages of medieval India arose out of Apabhramsa. The pushtimarg was the philosophy of Guru Vallabhacharya (Surdas was his disciple).


  1. Moinuddin Chisti (Ajmer), Nizamuddin Auliya (Delhi), Farduddin Masud (Pak Patan, Pakistan) & Khwaja Syed Mudammad Gesu Daraz (Gulbarga) are the famous sufi shrines.


  1. Krittivasa translated Ramayana into Bengali. Kabir, Ravidas, Dhanna & other low cast bhakti saints were belived to be disciples of Ramananda. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of Golconda founded the city of Hyderabad. Arabs were not a part of Mughal nobility. Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan was a mughal noble & poet under Akbar.


  1. The sufi silisilas were Suhrawadi, Firdausi, Shattari, Chisti, Qadiri & Naqshbandi. Amer was Jaipur, Marwar (Jodhpur), Mewar (present-day districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand and Udaipur).





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