Bihar : Planned Development
Bihar is the least urbanized state in the country, with an urbanization level of only 11.3 percent, according to census 2011. The state accounts for 8.6 percent of India’s total population, but it has only 3.1 percent of country’s total urban population. Between 2001 and 2011, the increase in urbanization was only 0.8 percentage point in Bihar, from 10.5 percent (2001) to 11.3 percent (2011). This slow pace of urbanization in Bihar is indeed a long term phenomenon. Between 1961 and 2011, a span of half a century, the level of urbanization in Bihar has increased by only 3.9 percentage point, from 7.4 percent (1961) to 11.3 percent (2011).
The state government is paying more attention to urban development in the recent years. In 2015-16, there is an annual growth rate of 21.9 percent, indicating the state government’s deep attention to this sector in recent years. The state government has been collecting data on municipal finances for 28 largest towns in the state.
The Smart City Mission is an urban renewal programme initiated by the central government in June 2015. Three cities in Bihar were recognized for this initiative — Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur and Biharsharif. The smart city proposal is to be implemented at a cost of Rs. 1309.30 crore, with Rs. 1000 crore shared equally between the state government and central government.
Urban Development Programmes
To improve the living conditions in urban areas, a number of development programmes are now being implemented by the state government. Most of these programmes are being jointly funded by the central and the state government. This section presents the details of important urban development programmes — (i) Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG), (ii) Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), (iii) Namami Gange Scheme (NSG), (iv) Integrated Housing and Slum Development Plan (IHSDP), (v) Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY), (vi) Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) and (vii) Smart City Mission (viii) AMRUT Mission
Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG)
The main objective of the programme is to improve the solid waste management (SWM), water supply and sewerage pattern in the two towns. The two urban centres of Bihar are :- Patna Urban Agglomeration (Patna, Danapur, Khagaul and Phulwarisharif) and Bodh Gaya. The financial achievement is high for only three schemes under the project — Khagaul water supply scheme (106 percent), Bodh Gaya water supply scheme (73 percent) and Bodh Gaya sewerage scheme (82 percent).
Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT)
This programme was launched to develop small and medium towns. Under this, 11 schemes were taken up in Bihar. The schemes for which the financial achievement was relatively higher were all for road and drainage in several small and medium towns in Bihar.
Namami Gange Scheme
The main objective of the programme is to develop the towns along the river Ganga. This programme of the central government targets town located along the river Ganga, for cleaning and rejuvenation of the river. There are 32 towns identified in Bihar for implementation of the scheme. The Detailed Project Reports (DPR) are being prepared in these towns for Interception and Diversion Sewers, Solid Waste Management, River Front Development, Crematoria, Dhobi Ghats and Community Toilets.
Integrated Housing and Slum Development Plan (IHSDP)
The objective of this programme is to improve the living conditions of the slum dwellers, through construction of new houses as well as rehabilitation of existing dilapidated houses. The central government has sanctioned 30 schemes in 26 towns of Bihar. This scheme is also planned to end in March, 2017.
Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)
Launched in 2011, the objective of this programme is to create towns which are free of slums. All the district headquarters are included under this programme and the state government has already prepared 29 Detailed Project Reports (DPR) for 27 towns.
However, till date, the Central Sanctioning and Monitoring Committee has approved 7 of these proposals which are located in Patna, Darbhanga, Katihar and Purnea. In 2015, this scheme has been included under the new programme ‘Housing for All’.
Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)
This is one of the flagship projects launched by the central government in 2014 to improve the sanitation standards in the country. With Bihar facing an acute problem of open defecation, the state government has joined the central government in eliminating this problem. Bihar has set a target for the construction of 7.5 lakh toilets in the urban areas. For individual toilets, the state government provides Rs. 4000 to each family, in addition to the central assistance of Rs. 8000.
Smart City Mission (SCM)
Smart Cities Mission focus on the most pressing needs and the greatest opportunities to improve lives of the people. They tap a range of approaches – digital and information technologies, urban planning best practices, public-private partnerships, and policy change – to make a difference. They always put people first.
The objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The focus is on sustainable and inclusive development and the idea is to look at compact areas, create a replicable model which will act like a light house to other aspiring cities. The Smart Cities Mission is meant to set examples that can be replicated both within and outside the Smart City, catalyzing the creation of similar Smart Cities in various regions and parts of the country.
The Smart City Mission is an urban renewal programme initiated by the central government in June 2015. The main aim of the program is to improve infrastructure and to create sustainable and citizen friendly urban cities. A smart city is defined as a city which is highly developed in terms of infrastructure and communications. At its launch in 2015, the central government had identified 100 towns across India to be under this programme.
Three cities in Bihar were recognized for this initiative — Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur and Biharsharif. In the first round of selection the central government selected 20 cities, but none in the state of Bihar.
In the second round, Bagalpur has been selected as one of the cities under this programme. There are two interventions proposed — area based development in a pocket of the city covering 613 acres and a pan city initiative. The area based development includes several pilot interventions that can then be scaled up later. The pan city intervention proposes an intelligent transport system and intelligent solid waste management. The smart city proposal is to be implemented at a cost shared equally between the state government and central government through convergence with various schemes, and the remaining through PPP funding.
AMRUT Mission (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
It is an urban transformation scheme with the focus of the urban renewal projects to establish infrastructure that could ensure adequate robust sewerage networks and water supply.
Under AMRUT Mission , sufficient funds would be provided to Patna to improve the basic civic infrastructure like water supply, drainage system, transport system etc. There would be comprehensive urban development under (AMRUT) and would be taken up by the Centre for 26 cities of Bihar namely, Patna, Gaya, Bhagalpur, Biharsharif, Muzaffarpur, Katihar, Saharsa, Dehri, Jamalpur, Jehanabad, Buxar, Aurangabad, Darbhanga, Purnea, Ara, Begusarai, Munger, Chapra, Danapur Nizamat, Hajipur, Sasaram, Siwan, Bettiah, Motihari, Bagaha and Kishanganj.
Master Plan for Rural Development
The Bihar government is preparing a master plan for rural development to change the face of villages with community participation. It is a special initiative by the rural development department for inclusive development of rural areas including villages across the state.
Along with the master plan for urban development , there will also be master plan for rural development, as approx 89% people live in villages. In order to achieve inclusive growth , villages should not be left behind. The main thrust of the department’s master plan is rural development, each of the 8,392 gram panchayats in Bihar would have its own plan to participate, prepare development schemes, monitor implementation..
The master plan for rural development ‘Hamara Gaon Hamara Vikash’ (our village, our development) will be a vision document for the next five years. Master paln for every village have been prepared to turn the dream of rural development into a reality with the master plan for it.
The socio-economic mapping of each ward of the panchayat is underway to understand the need of the locality for development. A two-day workshop on the theme of intensive participative planning exercise for preparing the master plan for rural development has been organized. Hundreds of block development officers and others attended it. A pilot project of a master plan has already been prepared for Gonaha block in West Champaran district.BPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for BPCS Prelims and BPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by BPCS Notes are as follows:-
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