Transport sector in Bihar
Road Transport sector in BiharThe road transport is the most favorite mode of transport, compared to rail and air transport for both freight and passengers.
- It plays an important part in propelling economic development and social integration of the state.
- The number of registered motor vehicles in the state has increased rapidly, at an annual rate of 12.2 percent during the last five years (2010-15).
- As per the Year Book of Road Transport 2013, Bihar was the second fastest growing state in India (16.2 percent) in terms of registration of vehicles during 2009-13.
- However, the state still continues to remain at the bottom among all the major states in terms of number of vehicles per thousand of population. Till 2013, Bihar reported only 36 vehicles per thousand of population, compared to 149 for all states.
- The main roads which are constructed and maintained by the Central Government are known as the National Highways.
- These roads are meant for inter-state transport and movement of defence men and material in strategic areas.
- These also connect the state capitals, major cities, important ports, railway junctions, etc.
- The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) was operationalised in 1995.
- It is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Surface Transport.
- It is entrusted with the responsibility of development, maintenance and operation of National Highways.
- This is also the apex body to improve the quality of the roads designated as National Highways.
- The National Highways connect Bihar with other states for transportation of goods and passengers, promoting the growth of its economy.
- As on September, 2014, a total of 35 NHs, measuring 4321 kms were there in Bihar. With the addition of 3 more NHs during the year, the total length of NH has become 4595 kms.
- Around 68 percent of NH are double and multiple lane roads and the rest 32 percent single and intermediate lane roads.
- These are constructed and maintained by state governments. They join the state capitals with district headquarters and other important towns. These roads are connected to the National Highways.
- State Highways (SH) The State Highways (SH) are the arterial roads in a state for inter-district movements.
- They traverse the length and breadth of the state, connecting the state capital, district headquarters and important towns and cities and link up with the NH and adjacent SH.
- The total length of the SH in Bihar in 2015 was 4253 kms. Around 65 percent of it were double-lane roads, 20 percent single-lane roads, and 15 percent intermediate-lane roads.
- The multiple-lane roads with more than 7-meter width constituted only 1.0 percent of the SH.
- These roads are the connecting link between District Headquarters and the other important nodes in the district
- The Major District Roads are the branch roads of the State and National Highways and serve as roads for intra-district movement.
- They traverse the length and breadth of a district to connect the villages to the urban centres.
- There was 10,634 kms. of MDR in the state as on September, 2015, with a major portion (54 percent) having a width of 3.75 meters.
- This width is quite inadequate for the present transport density in the state. Out of the total length of MDR, 4897 kms have been converted into intermediate or 2-lane width.
- Those roads which are yet to be converted into wider roads, have undergone surface renewal or repaired work. In future, they will be converted into intermediate or 2-lane roads
- These roads are vital for providing links in the rural areas
- Rural Roads Rural roads serve as the feeder roads as well as the roads for inter-village movements.
- They pass through the rural areas, connecting the village to one-another and to the nearest road of higher category (MDR, SH and NH).
- It helps the rural economic activities like local trade and business, and enables farmers to take their agricultural produce to more profitable markets nearby.
- It also helps the surplus labour available in the farm sector to move to the nearest work station for more fruitful economic activities.
- During 2014-15, a total of 50,596 kms. of rural roads were constructed with an expenditure of Rs. 26,233 crore in all the seven schemes, mentioned in Table 5.7. However, Mukhya Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna, Apki Sarkar Apke Dwar Yojna, Special Component Programme for Schedule Caste Mahadalit Yojana (SCP) and Border Area Development Programme have now been discontinued.
- These four schemes together covered 14.4 percent of financial expenditure and 16.3 percent of road construction in 2014-15.
- The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana alone had provided 63.4 percent finance for 66.3 percent of rural roads.
- Indian railways network is one of the longest in the world. It facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers and contributes to the growth of economy.
- Mahatma Gandhi said, the Indian railways “brought people of diverse cultures together to contribute to India’s freedom struggle.”
- Indian Railway was introduced in 1853, when a line was constructed from Bombay to Thane covering a distance of 34 km.
- Indian Railways is the largest government undertaking in the country.
- Railways Heavy industries, major cities and large markets are linked by rail route network.
- The railways also provides a less costly mode of transport for both goods and passengers.
- The share of rail transport in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Bihar has declined from 2.1 percent (2005- 06) to 1.2 percent (2014-15).
- The share of broad gauge lines in Bihar is 84 percent, compared to 87 percent for whole of India.
- The Rail Route Density per 1000 sq. km is 38 kms in Bihar, compared to 20 kms in all-India. However, only 0.04 km rail route exist in Bihar per thousand population.
- This is less than 0.05 km for India and less than half of Gujarat (0.09 km)
Air Transport sector in Bihar
- Air transport is the fastest means of movement from one place to the other. It has reduced distances by minimising the travel time.
- It is very essential for a vast country like India, where distances are large and the terrain and climatic conditions are diverse.
- Air transport in India made a beginning in 1911 when airmail operation commenced over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini. But its real development took place in post-Independent period.
- The Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the Indian Air Space. The authority manages 125 airports.
- The air transport in India is managed by two corporations, Air India and Indian Airlines after nationalisation. Now many private companies have also started passenger services.
- Airways As an infrastructure segment, airways plays vital role in facilitating the growth of business and economy.
- A robust civil aviation set-up is a key to seamless flow of investment, trade and tourism, with significant multiplier effects on the growth of the economy.
- The number of aircraft movement increased from 9900 in 2013-14 to 11,054 in 2014-15.
- Over these two years, the number of passengers increased from 10.5 lakh to 12.0 lakh and freight also increased from 4849 tonnes to 5198 tonnes.
Road Vision 2020 of Bihar Govt
- To sustain the economic growth of Bihar, there should a matching infrastructure. For sound infrastructural investment plans, one needs to anticipate the future requirement and capacity.
- Otherwise, the infrastructure becomes inadequate in a few years leading to the same gap as before.
- The commitment of the state government to improve and expand infrastructure in the state is reflected in the investment in infrastructure during the last decade.
- The state government is preparing Road Vision 2020 for expansion of road network and removal of congestion in traffic.
Major objectives of Road Vision 2020
- Ensuring connectivity from Patna to farthest districts within 5 hours
- 2-laning of all State Highways (SH)
- Single lane MDR to be converted into intermediate lane MDR
- Replacement of narrow, old and screw pile bridges with wider RCC bridges
- Use of latest technology for safer and comfortable journey
- Ensuring connectivity of all SH with NH
- Ensuring connectivity with commercial centres and places of tourist importance
Major Works Planned during 2016-20
- 5 major road projects (Noorsarai-Silao Road, Anisabad-Aurangabad-Hariharganj Road (NH 98), Dehri-Nasariganj-Bikramganj-Dinara Road (SH 15), Darbhanga-Samastipur Road (SH 50) to Sobhangram (NH 57), Dighwara-Bheldi-Amnour-Taraiya-Panapur to Semari Mandir (SH 104) and 5 major bridge projects (4-Lane bridge on river Ganga connecting Arrah and Chhapra, Rail-cum-Road Bridge over river Ganga between Digha and Sonepur, Bridge between Gandaul and Biraul bridge between Gaya and Manpur on river Falgu, Flyover between Mithapur ROB round about to Chiraiyatanr bridge via Station Road and extension of Exhibition Road arm of Chairaiyatanr bridge up to Gandhi Maidan, Bishunpur bridge between Bettiah and Gopalganj over river Gandak) will be completed in calendar year 2016.
- 7 major road projects (Bihta-Sarmera Road – SH 78, Nalanda-Islampur Road, Nagarnausa-Chhatighat -Kalyan Bigha Chero – Bahadur PWD road, Chandi to Chhabilapur SH-71 via Tharthari-Parwalpur-Andwas, Didarganj-Bakhtiyarpur road – SH 106, road of Dhanha Ratwal bridge over river Gandak in West Champaran, Supaul – Galgalia – NH 327E (Galgalia – Bariahi) and 4 major bridge projects (AIIMS-Digha elevated corridor, Bangraghat (bridge) between Muzaffarpur and Saran, Bridge between Daudnagar and Nasariganj on river Sone, Sattarghat Bridge on river Gandak) will be completed by 2017.
- 4 major road projects (road along Indo-Nepal Border in Bihar, Fatuha-Harnaut-Barh Section – NH 30A, Birpur – Bihpur Section – NH 106, Sheohar – Sitamarhi – Jainagar – Narahiya Section – NH 104) and 2 major bridge projects (Ganga Path, 4-Lane Ganga Bridge between Bakhtiarpur and Tajpur, Mithapur flyover to Chiraiyatanr bridge via Karbigahiya) will be completed in the year 2018.
- 1 major bridge project (4-lane bridge over river Ganga connecting Sultanganj and Aguwani Ghat) will be completed in 2019.
- 1 major bridge project (6-lane bridge over river Ganga connecting Kachchi Dargah and Bidupur) will be completed by the end of 2020
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