District and Divisions of Bihar part 3

Gopalganj

Gopalganj is a town, municipality and headquarters of Gopalganj district in the Indian state of Bihar. Modern District of Gopalganj was established on October 2, 1973.

District and Divisions of Bihar part 3

Gopalganj district covers 2,033 square kilometres (785 sq mi) in area and ranks as the 26th largest district in the state of Bihar. The district is mostly plains and fertile land. In the district’s western part, the Gandak river flows southwards. It is located at 26.47°N 84.43°E,  at an average elevation of 66 metres (217 ft).

 

Jamui
Jamui was formed in 1991 as a result of its separation from Munger. The district, located in the centre of Bihar has a total area of 3122.80 sq kms. With Munger and Lakhisarai in the north, Giridih in the south, Deoghar and Banka in the east and Nawada in the west, Jamui has a total population of 13, 98,796 of which males have a share of 7, 29,138 and females 6, 69,658. With 401 people per sq mtr, Jamui has a literacy rate of 42.74%.

Well connected to all the major Indian cities, Jamui is nearest to both JayaPrakash Narayan International Airport and Gaya International Airport. With 28 Commercial Banks and 35 Gramin Banks, the district has a Sub-divisional Hospital, 7 Primary Health Centers, 3 Referral Hospitals, 152 Health Sub-centers, 3 Gramin Aushadhalayas, and 24 Additional Primary Health Centers. It boasts of achieving the national target of 40 litres of drinking water per person per day.

Mining and agriculture are the two main source of revenue of Jamui. With 55,570 hectares of net cropped area, it has reserves of Stone Chips, Granite, Morram Sand, and Quartz among others.

 

Jehanabad
Jehanabad was carved out of old Gaya district on 1st August, 1986. It was a sub-division of the Gaya since 1872. The main aim behind the creation of this district was to accelerate the pace of development in tandem with tackling the problems of extremism, poverty, unemployment and underdevelopment.

The city of Jehanabad, which is the head quarter of the district, is situated at the confluence of the rivers Dardha & Yamuna. According to the provisional estimate, this district is situated in between 25-0’ to 25-15’ degree north latitude and 84-31’ to 85-15’ eastern north latitude. Its surrounding districts are the district of Patna in north, Gaya in south, Nalanda in east and the newly created district of Arwal in the west. Major part of the land in the district is plain. The rivers Sone, Phalgu, Dardha & Yamuna cris-cross the district. The river Sone that touches the western part of the district is the only perennial river. Rest of the rivers are seasonal. The river Phalgu has got religious importance where the Hindus offer “PIND DAN” to their fore fathers.

The climate of Jehanabad is of extreme nature, i.e. very hot in the summers and biting cold in the winters. The average rainfall of the district is 1074.5 mm. Out of the total rainfall 90 percent comes from monsoons. The economy of the district is agriculture based. The soil is very much fertile known as “KEWAL” in local terms. This soil is very suitable for the production of rice, wheat, cane, etc.

The district of Jehanabad has a certain place in the history of India. The description is found in the famous book “aine-e-akbari”. The book says that the place was badly affected by famine in the 17th century and people were dying of hunger. The Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb, in whose time the book was re-written, established a Mandi for relief of the people and named the “Mandi” as “JAHANARA”. The Mandi was under the direct control and supervision of Jahanara. It is believed that she spent a great deal of time here. In the course of time, the place came to be known as “JAHANARABAD” and later as “JEHANABAD”.

Today Jehanabad is known more for its minuses than for its pluses but that wasn’t always the case. Tradition and legends. Hindu as well as Buddhist, take down the history of Jehanabad to a period of hoary antiquity. The district abounds in ancient and medieval sites, mounds and ruins, some of which contain archaeological remains of considerable importance.
Of the various places in the district which have yielded archaeological remains, Barabar, Dharawat and Dabthu occupy notable positions. The earliest of the archaeological remains in the district are to be found in the Barabar and Nagarjuni hills. The credit for unraveling the charm and appeal of the Barabar hills goes to the celebrated British writer E.M. Forster. His A Passage to India is replete with references to the Barabar hills by simply changing the name of the hills and caves to Marabar.
The Barabar hills situated about 14 Kms. East of Makhdumpur railway station in Jehanabad district is famous for its rock cut caves which are supposed to be the earliest examples of cave Architecture in north India. During the reign of Ashoka, for caves were excavated in the Barabar hills for the ascetics of Ajivika sect. These are known as Sudama, Vishwajhopri, Karnchaupar and Lomas rishi and are excavated in the hardest granite with infinite care and the interior surface of all of them contains high polish and are burnished like glass. In the Nagarjuni range about 1 Km to the north east of Barabar hills there are three excavated caves containing the inscriptions of Ashoka’s grandson Dusratha. These are known as Gopi, Vahiyaka and Vedathika.
For sheer panoramic grandeur and rugged natural beuty very few places in the district can be compared to the northern portion of the Barabar hills. From a distance, the twin hills of Barabar and Nagarjuni look like a dragoon slithering slowly towards the horizon. The Archaeological survey of India (ASI) has also sent a proposal to the UNESCO for inclusion of Barabar hills in the world heritage list of monuments.

Dharaut about 10 Kms north west of Barabar hills, has been identified as the site of the Buddhist monantery of Gunamati. Not only does the position of Dharaut correspond with the account of itinerary given by the Chinese pilgrim Huen Tsang but the site of the ruins also agrees with his description. At the foot of the Kunwa hill which shut in Dharaut on the south stretches a large tank known as Chandrapokhar. The name of the tank perpetuates the legend that it was excavated by Raja Chandra Sen. Two modern temples at its north eastern corner once contained a large collection of ancient statues. The most remarkable was a colossal image of twelve armed Avalokiteswara Boddhisatva which has now been shifted to the Patna musiam.
Six Kms east of Hulasganj in Jehanabad, Dabthu is chiefly known for its finally carved images and ruins of temples.
A noted scholar and historian FH Hamilton visited Dabthu and adjoing villages in 1811-12. His travelogue contained descriptions of dilapidated structures of magnificent temples including a jain temple, a mausoleum of a sufi saint and numerous images of Hindu gods and goddesses around the temples. Buchanan also talks of a sprawing earthen mound which is still extant. Now little remains of those shrines and idols as described by hamilton and Buchanan. However, in the remains of ancient shrines one can still see images of deities mutilated and decayed by ravages of time.

About 25 Kms south-west of Jehanabad Ghejan is known for a number of ancient Buddhist and Brahminical statues. The most interesting of them being a large seated diadem. There was also a large statue of Avalokiteswara with an inscription on the pedestal stating that it was the gift of Sthavira Ratn, who came from Nalanda and dedicated it for the benefit of his two disciples. This piece of Bodhist sculpture has since being shifted to the Patna Musiam.

According to legend, Budha is said to have stayed in the village for a few days while on way to Gaya to attain enlightenment. He had also delivered sermons to a select group of disciples in the village. Later Bimbisar, emperor of Magadh setup a monastery in the village to commemorate Budha’s visit. The ruins of an ancient brick temple also exist in the village and there is also a temple containing a large standing figure of Tara, now worshiped as Bhagwati.

At a time when vested interest are working over time to spread frenzy in the country, a small, unobtrusive Dargah at Kako in Jehanabad stands as a beacon of social harmony and peace for thousands of devotees belonging to both communities, Muslium and Hindus. Bibi Kamal preached religious tolerance and love in opposition to orthodoxy. For her, there was but one God and the world the reflection of God who permeates every thing.
People irrespective of their faith visit the Dargah of Bibi Kamal. Bibi Kamal’s Urs takes place in November every year when cooked rice is distributed amoung devotees seeking her blessings

The language spoken here is “MAGAHI”, a dialect of Hindi.

 

Katihar
Katihar, a part of Purnia division, has total area coverage of 3057 sq km. With a population of 2,389,533, the place is located at 25.53 degree north and 87.58 degree east. The district, with a population density of 782 persons per sq km, has a total literacy rate of 35.29% as per the 2001 census. An independent district since 1973, Katihar is primarily an agrarian region. Paddy is the chief commercial crop. However, the district also houses jute and paper mills.

 

While the total urban population of Katihar is 2, 18,246, total rural population is 2,171,287. Also for every 1000 males there are 919 females in the region. One of the interesting facts about Katihar is that it has only 23% of its population below poverty line.

 

Named after a tiny village dighi-katihar situated at the northeast corner, the district has a rich heritage. Closely linked with Purnia by proper roads Katihar is well-known for the prominent northeast railway junction.

 

With a steadily increasing literacy rate and declining below poverty line mark, Katihar is surely making a mark of its own as one of the 37 districts of Bihar.

 

 

Khagaria
Khagaria, as a district, is only twenty Years old. Earlier, it was a part of the district of Munger, as a subdivision. The sub-division of Khagaria was created in the Year 1943-44. It was upgraded as district, with effect from 10th May, 1981, vide Government of Bihar notification no. 7/T-1-207/79 dated 30th April,1981. As a sub-division of the old district of Munger, Khagaria was the youngest, in terms of creation of sundivision, before independence. The other three older subdivision were Munger sadar, Begusarai and Jamui. The Jamui sub-division was created on 22nd July,1864 and Begusarai sub-division on the 14th February 1870.

 

Khagaria was created as a separate sub-division mainly because of the difficulties arising out of a lack of easy means of communications. Railways were a very old means of communication in this district. As per the Gazetteer of 1960,this Sub-division had three railway lines – the north Eastern Railway, passing west to East had four Stations – Khagaria, Mansi, Maheshkhunt and Pasraha . One branch Line shot off from Khagaria passing through Olapur and Imli, while another branch line shot off from Mansi, which went up to Saharsa. This Mansi- Saharsa branch line, during that period was however disturbed during rains between Katyani Asthan and Koparia, a distance of 6 miles, which had to be covered by boats. Apart from railways, the other means of communication was roads, which were in a very bad shape. The only metalled road at that time was 22 mile long Maheshkhunt- Aguawani ghat road, which was still under construction. During that period Khagaria- Parihara- bakhri Road was also under construction and National Highway linking Moakamaghat to Assam was under contemplation.

 

Recurrence of floods was an annual affair, as five major rivers – The Ganga, The Gandak, The Bagmati, The Kamala and The Koshi passed through the area of the subdivision of Khagaria. The recurrence of floods along with water logging made communication extremely difficult in the rainy season. Before the construction of South embankment of Baghmati and Gogari- Narayanpur embankment, the vast portion of land between the railway line and three streams, namely, the Bagmati, the Kamla and The Ghaghri ( the main stream of Koshi) and the various streams, as the Maria river and the Maitha river, used to abound in marshes.

 

It is said that the entire areas, now included in the district of khagaria, was “Dahnal”, affected by floods of the Ganga, the Gandak, the Kamla, the Bagmati and the Koshi and that because of its physical situation, any site of importance must have been washed away. That is why, it does not possess any historical site of importance. According to the history, commonly known in this part, it is said that during the time of Emperor Akbar, Raja Todarmal had been entrusted with the duty of making a survey of the entire area, but as he failed to do it, he advise that this area should be excluded, in other words, he adopted the policy of “Farak Kiya” and that is why the area is Known as “Pharkiya Pargana”.

 

Before the construction of embankments along the Ganga, the Bagmati, the Burhi Gandak and the Kosi, namely karachi badlaghat embankment, Badla- Nagarpara embankment, Burhi Gandak protection embankment and Gogri- Narayanpur embankment, the vast tract of present Khagaria district was flat alluvial plain and was abound in marshy and swampy land. The characteristics of this part, north of the Ganga has been described as follows by a former collector of Munger, Mr. E. Lockwood in “Natural History, Sports and Travel”- “The northern part is an extensive plain formed by the rich alluvial soil brought down by the ever changing river. In the north, nine tenths of the trees are cultivated mangoes, whilst wheat, Indian corn, various kinds of millet peas, masur, rahar, oats, indigo, mustard, linseed and castor oil, are the principal crops which the land holders find profitable to grow.” He further describes that in contrast, “the southern portion (south of the Ganga) consists of vast rice tracts and forests, which cover the metamorphic hills extending far away into central India from the town of Monghyr. In the forest of the south are found the ebony tree, the sal and the mahua. The south also yields vast quantities of rice,and a hundred and fifty tons of opium, grown on twenty five thousand acres of land, whilst, after crossing the Ganges, little rice and not a single poppy will be seen.”

The major part of the alluvial plain comprising this district, at present, is mainly a saucer- shaped depression, the center of which was innundated during the rains by the over flow of the rivers and for the rest of the year was full of marshy hollows. The inundation has decreased after construction of embankments but still a large part in the north eastern part of the district, contained in west by Gogari- Maheshkhunt – Saharsa Road, in the north by the Koshi and in the south by the Ganga is completely inundated during rainy season except for the National Highway and the New Delhi – Gauhati Railway line .

 

 

Kishangunj
Located in the northeast of Bihar Kishanganj became a separate district in 1990. Surrounded by West Bengal, Bangladesh and Nepal it occupies a total of 1, 93, 855 hectares (2001 census). As a densely populated region it accommodates a total of 12, 94, 063 people and has a total irrigated area of 27, 018 hectares. In its earliest phase the place was ruled by the Khagada Nawab.

 

Accessible by air, rail and road the city is has 6 operational railway stations. Gaya International Airport and JayaPrakash Narayan Airport are around 90 kms away.

 

While ginger, turmeric and garlic are the main cash crops, Kishanganj is well-known for its diversified range of industries. These include

  • Plywood
  • Tea Processing Plants
  • Jute
  • Poultry Farming
  • Cottage
  • Silk Animal husbandry is another main economic activity of this district. With adequate support from Government institutions this region has grown into a bustling commercial hub.

Enriched with a fascinating historical past, the District boasts of some appealing tourist spots. Some of them are Town Hall, Nehru Shanti Park and Khagra Mela.

To achieve an all-comprising development, Kishanganj’s educational scenario is changing rapidly. With 508 Primary Schools, 90 Middle Schools, one Kendriya Vidyalaya, one Navodya Vidyalaya, two Colleges, one Polytechnic College and one Medical College, the district provides room for more medical, technical and vocational institutes.

 

In the coming years Kishanganj will definitely emerge as one of the most developed districts of Bihar through its industrious efforts.

 

 

Lakhisarai

 

Lkhisarai is a beautiful and important place in the state of Bihar. This district was established on the 3rd of July 1994. Before coming into existence as a new district, Lakhisarai was a sub-division within Munger District. Historians established on the basis of analysis of evidences, that this place was a reputed religious center for the Hindus in the period of Pal. The ruler of that time was fond of making Temples and other religious spots. It is one of the reasons that there are so many temples and other religious places within this region. Some significant temples and religious spots within the district are Ashokdham, Bhagwati Mandir of Barahiya, Sringi Rishi, Jalappa Asthan, Abhainath Asthan on Abhaipur Mountains, Maharani Asthan of Abhaipur, Govindbaba Asthan (Mandap) Rampur and Durga Asthan Lakhisarai etc.

The district covers an area of about 129397 Hectares, Geographically, lies between 25o to 25o 20’ north Latitude and 85o 55’ to 86o 25’ east longitude. Lakhisarai is bounded by Munger, Sheikhpura, Begusarai and Patna in the East, South, West and North respectively.

The district can be divided into three parts viz. (i) Hilly area (ii) Flood hit area and (ii) Plain area. The hilly area comprises of hill series and rocks like Kachhua hills, Kajra mountains up to Abhaipur and Jaynagar Mountains including forest area. Almost whole of Pipariya block and some part of Barahiya is considered as flood hit area. This area remains almost drowned in rainy season. But so far as cultivation and agriculture is concerned this area is called the stock of food Grains. Rest of the part except Hilly and flood hit area is plain area with full greenery and cultivable land.

 

 

Madhepura

Madhepura district occupies an area of 1787 km² and has a population of 1,524,596 (as of 2001). It is surrounded by Araria and Supaul district in the north, Khagaria and Bhagalpur district in the south, Purnia district in the east and Saharsa district in the West. It is situated in the Plains of River Koshi and located in the Northeastern part of Bihar at longitude between 25°. 34 to 26°.07′ and latitude between 86° .19′ to 87°.07′.

 

The history of Madhepura is traced back to the reign of Kushan Dynasty of Ancient India. The “Bhant Community” living in Basantpur and Raibhir village under Shankarpur block are the descendents of the Kushan Dynasty.Madhepura was a part of  Maurya Dynasty, this fact is asserted by the Mauryan pillar at Uda-kishunganj. Singheswar Sathan has the religious significance since ancient time as this land was the meditation place of the great Rishi ,Shringi. Hence this place is considered to be the most pious for the Hindus. Sikandar Sah had also visited the district, which is evident from the coins discovered from Sahugarh Village.

 

Madhubani
 Madhubani is a town and a municipality in Madhubani district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the district headquarters. It lies 26 km northeast of Darbhanga town and was part of the erstwhile ‘Bettiah Raj’. Internal disputes and family quarrels divided the Bettiah Raj in course of time. The Madhuban Raj in Madhubani was created as a consequence. The word “Madhuban” means “forest of honey” from which Madhubani is derived, but sometimes it is also known as “madhu”+”vaani”, meaning “sweet” “voice/language”. Madhubani is the cultural heart of Mithilanchal, being the birthplace of many literary people and home to Madhubani Paintings.It is said to be that Madhubani is the world’s second city who adopted democracy.
Madhubani District is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Madhubani town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Madhubani district is a part of Darbhanga Division. The district occupies an area of 3501 km² and has a population of 3,570,651 (as of 2001). This is the centre of Mithila, a region where the main language is Maithili.

Madhubani district comprises the following Sub-Divisions:

·         Madhubani,

·         Jaynagar,

·         Benipatti,

·         Jhanjharpur,

·         Phulparas

 

Munger
Situated in 250-23’ N. and 860-26’ E. It is the headquarter of Munger Commissionary. The town is practically surrounded by the Ganga on three sides, viz. southwest and north and the Kharagpur hills forming the eastern border. It is situated in the heart of the district and its particular location has made portion of the town a beauty spot. The situation was once considered to be strategic. Munger has a beautiful townscape. Prior to the Census of India- 1971, Monghyr was in vogue as its name.

 

Munger District is located in the southern part Bihar and its headquarters are located on the southern bank of river Ganges. The district is spread over 1419.7 Sq. km. accounting for 3.3% of the area of Bihar. From administrative and development point of view, Munger is divided into three subdivisions namely Munger, Kharagpur, and Tarapur. There are nine developmental blocks namely Munger, Jamalpur, Bariarpur, Dharhara, Kharagpur, Tetia Bambar, Tarapur, Asarganj and Sangarampur. There are about 903 villages in the district. The Munger district on an average is 30 to 65 mtrs above sea level. The average annual rainfall is 1231 mm.

The territory included within the district of Munger (famously Monghyr) formed pent of the Madhya-desa as “Midland” of the first Aryan settlers. It has been identified with Mod-Giri a place mentioned in the Mahabharata, which was the capital of a kingdom in Eastern India near Vanga and Tamralipta. In the Digvijaya Parva of Mahabharata, we find the mention of Moda-Giri, Which seems similar to Moda-Giri. Digvijaya Parva suggests that it was a monarchical state during early times. A passage in the Sabha-Parva describes Bhima’s conquest in Eastern India and says that after defeating Karna, king of Anga, he fought battle at Modagiri and killed its chief. It was also known as Maudal after Maudgalya, a disciple of Buddha, who converted a rich merchant of this place into Buddhism. Buchanan says that it was the hermitage of Mudgala Muni and this tradition of Mudgal Risi still persists. Munger is called “Modagiri” in the Monghyr copperplate of Devapala.

 

The derivation of the name Munger (Monghyr) has found the subject of much speculation. Tradition arcribes the foundation of the town to Chandragupta, after whom it was called Guptagars a name which has been found inscribed on a rock at Kastaharni Ghat at the north-western corner of the present fort. It is insisted that Mudgalrisi lived there. Tradition ascribes the composition of various suktar of the 10th Mavdala of the Rigveda to Rishi Mudgal and his clan. However, General Cunnigham had strong suspicicion when he connects this original name with Mons as Mundas, who occupied this part before the advent of the Aryans. Again Mr. C.E.A. oldham, ICS, a farmer collector suggests the possibility of Munigiha, ie , the abode of the Muni, without any specification which later corrupted to Mungir and later became Munger.

At the dawn of history, the present site of the town was apparently comprised within the Kingdom of Anga, with the capital Champa near Bhagalpur. According to Pargiter, Anga comprises the modern districts of Bhagalpur and Munger commissionary. The Anga dominion at one time included Magadha and the Shanti-arva refers to an Anga king who sacrificed at Mount Vishnupada. In the epic period Modagiri finds mention as a separate state. The success of the Anga did not last long and about the middle of the sixth century B.C. Bimlisara of Magadha is said to have killed Brahmadatta, the last independent ruler of ancient Anga. Hence the Anga became an integral part of the growing empire of Magadh. As epigraphic evidence of the Gupta period suggests that Munger was under the Guptas. To the reign of Buddhagupta (447-495 A.D) belongs a copper plate of A.D. 488-9 originally found at Mandapura in the district.

 

 

Muzafarpur
Muzaffarpur district of Bihar is spread over an area of 3172 sq. kms. The district is bounded on the north by East Champaran and Sitamarhi districts, on the south by the district of Vaishali, on the east by the districts of Darbhanga and Samastipur (part) and on the west by Saran and part of Gopalganj districts. The district headquarters is located at Muzaffarpur.

 

The district has a population of 3.743 million (2001 census). Overall, there were 906 females per 1000 males. Rural population in the district is 90.7% and urban population is 9.3%. The Scheduled caste and scheduled Tribe contributed about 15.7% and 0.04% of the population respectively. The decennial growth rate between 1981 and 1991 was 23.3%. The density of the population was 929 per sq. kms. Hindi is the main language spoken in the district. Muzaffarpur district consists of 2 sub-divisions and 14 Community Development Blocks. It has 3 towns and 1796 villages.

 

The Muzaffarpur district comprises of an extensive plain formed by the alluvium brought by the Gandak, the Bagmati and other rivers, which flow through it. The ground is not marked by any high contour and at many places there are chains of shallow marshes, which serve the purpose of drainage for excessive water due to rainfall and overflow of the stream. The alluvial plain is a tract of great fertility. The soil of the district is largely alluvial. A special feature of the district is that due to continuous deposit of silt many of its riverbeds are higher than the adjoining areas. This leads to frequent floods during the rainy season particularly in northeast and southwest parts of the district.

 

The Gandak, Bagmati, Burhi Gandak and Baya are the important rivers besides a few streams. The Gandak and Bagmati have their origins in the mountains of Nepal. The Burhi Gandak is navigable during the greater part of the year. River Baya emanates from the Gandak a little west of the Muzaffarpur district. It enters the district near Karnaul in Sahebganj block and flows in the southeasterly direction almost parallel to the parent river and ultimately joins the Ganga.

The district has well developed means of communication. It has a network of railways and well-maintained roads. Country boats also ply in the larger rivers. All the block headquarters are linked with the district headquarters, Muzaffarpur by pucca roads. Train and buses are the main sources of communication. Almost all the roads are nationalised and the buses of Bihar Rajya Transport Corporation ply on these roads. Besides, private buses also ply on some routes,

 

Muzaffarpur district is the center of several Industries, big and small. The Prabhat Zarda Factory, Bharat Wagon and Engineering Ltd., units of Leather Develop­ment Corporation, Muzaffarpur Dairy, a unit of the Bihar State Dairy Corporation are the major industries located in Muzaffarpur town and its periphery. The above industries have generated considerable employment and have also been helpful in establishing a number of small industries including a few cottage industries. The most important item that is manufactured in Muzaffarpur town is railway wagon. Muzaffarpur town is a very important centre for the cloth trade

In ancient period before the birth of Christ Viz. between 725 and 484 B.C., the region of Muzaffarpur and Hajipur was known as Vaishali. It was here that the first Republican Government was established and the history of the Republican Vajjian confederacy is bright and glorious. In the Central administration of the vajiis, there were the posts of the President, the Senapati and the Bhandarik. There was a central legislature the total number of whose members was 7707. There was an elaborate procedure for conducting the business of the Assembly of Lichchavis. The Vinaya Pitaka informs us that the Assembly used, first of all, to elect an officer whose function was to make them sit in order of seniority. Disputes were settled by counting voting tickets known as “Salakas” which were distributed to the voters.

 

The most remarkable thing in the Lichchhavi Republic was their high regard for personal liberty and the care that no innocent should be punished . The key to the success of the Lichchhavi republic was their democratic way of life which was enshrined in their “Seven non-injuring way-” or “Satta Aparihanidhamma”.

 

Muzaffarpur has got a glorious past and the present history is equally fascinating and interesting. The town of Muzaffarpur was founded in the 18th century by one Muzaffar khan, an “AMIL” or a farmer of Chakla Nai.

Its earlier history presents an interesting study. In 1324, Sultan Ghayasuddin Tughlak of Delhi after exterminating the “Karnata” dynasty established by Nanyadeva in North Bihar as early as 1097, brought this region under his control. He and his successor Mohammad entrusted the administration of Trihut to one Kameshwar Thakur who established Oinwar dynasty. It was at this time Haji Illyas Shah, the ruler of Bengal invaded Trihut and brought Hajipur (named after him) under his control.

 

Muzaffarpur is India’s Gateway to Nepal and China and even now the trade of cloth and grains is brisk between Kathmandu and Muzaffarpur. During the early period of British Raj in India, Muzaffarpur was a favourite place of the European indigo planters and they were scattered all over the districts of Muzaffarpur and Motihari. The foreign planters had build a nice club close to the railway lines going to Narayanpur Anant from Muzaffarpur. The debris of the imposing club building is still lying on the southern side of Ramna and just opposite to the Bose familys’ houses. The road east of the Kalyan Chowk which passes through the Gurudwara and the Ramna compound and ends near Satpura was known as the Planter’s Club Road as per old records.

 

Mahatma Gandhi came first to Muzaffarpur in 1918 on his way to Motihari to redress grievances of the Champaran farmers .In his book ” My Experiments with truth “, Vol 1, he has written how he passed some delightful days at Ramna. It is important to mention that first President of Indian Republic – “Dr Rajendra Prasad” was a teacher in the “Greer Bhumihiar Brahman College, Muzaffarpur. In 1902, Poet Rabindra Nath Tagore was accorded the first civic reception by the citizens of Muzaffarpur and this is the first town in India which had a unique priviege of doing so. In 1908, the first bomb outrage a sign of militant Nationalism, occurred at Muzaffarpur and Khudi Ram Bose offered his life at the altar of the Indian Independence.

 

In 1916, Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya came to Muzaffarpur for collection of funds in connection with the Banaras Hindu University and a public meeting of landlords of the Trihut divison. It was held in Ramna under the presidentship of Maharaj Adhiraj Sir Rameshwar Singh Bahadur of Darbhanga. Big and small zamindars presented sizeable amount of donations. Among the zamindars Late Babu Maheshwar Prasad (father of Sri Umashankar Prasad alias Bacha Babu) made the highest contribution of Rupees Ten Thousand only for B.H.U. at that time. In early twenties of the 20th century Acharya Kriplani and Dr Rajendra Prasad were appointed lecturers in the said college. Mr R.P. Khosa, I.E.S , Head of the Department of History, G.B.B College was an outstanding personality in Bihar.

 

Muzaffarpur possesses ancient temples like Baba Garib Nath, Chaturbhuj Sthan, Raj Rajeswar Devi Kali Temple of Raj Darbhanga and Kalibari. Sri Ram Dayalu Singh was the first speaker of the Bihar Legislative assembly in the post independent period. After his demise, Sri Bindeshwar Pd. Verma was elected the speaker of the Assembly. Sri Mahesh Pd. Sinha was also a renowned Political leader of Muzaffarpur but the old culture and traditional life got a setback when he was appointed a minister of the Bihar Government. Sri C.P.N Sinha who is the first person to be appointed to provincial Government ,the foremost citizen of Muzaffarpur, lived on the club road here.

 

Rai Bahadur Shyam Nandan Sahay and Rai Bahadur Sri Narayan Mahtha both members of the Indian parliament, played an important role in the cultural, social and political spheres of the town.

 

 

Nalanda
Nalanda, is famous all over the world for the the ancient International Monastic University established in 5th century BC, which taught Vedas, Logic, Grammar, Medicine, Meta-Physics, Prose Composition and Rhetoric. Nalanda district is popularly known as Biharsharif. The rivers Phalgu, and Mohane flows through the district of Nalanda. The various sub divisions of the district are Biharsharif, Rajgir, and Hilsa. The district is divided into blocks of Giriyak, Rahui, Nursarai, Harnaut, Chandi, Islampur, Rajgir, Asthawan, Sarmera, Hilsa, Biharsharif, Ekangarsarai, Ben, Nagarnausa, Karaiparsurai, Silao, Parwalpur, Katrisarai, Bind, and Tharthari. It is spread over the area of 2,367 sq. kms. The total population of the district is 19,97,995.

 

Agriculture is the main source of occupation. The farmers mainly grow paddy, apart from it they grow Potato, and Onion. Few people of the district are also involved in handloom weaving. Since the district is a famous tourist destination, tourism plays a vital role in the economy of Nalanda.

 

 

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