District and Divisions of Bihar part 4

Nawada district is one of the thirty-seven districts of Bihar state, India, and Nawada town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Nawada district occupies an area of 2492 km² and has a population of 1,809,425 (as of 2001). Headquarters: Nawadah

Area: 2,494 km
Population: Total: 1359694 Rural: 1265138 Urban: 94556
Sub Divisions: Nawadah, Rajauli
Blocks: Kauakol,Varsaliganj, Nawadah, Rajouli, Akbarpur, Hisua, Narhat, Govindpur, Pakribarawan, Sirdalla, Kasichak, Roh, Nardiganj, Meskaur
Agriculture: Paddy
Industry: Bidi factories
Rivers: Sakri

Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India, reportedly visited Rajauli for rest and recuperation. Rajauli is surrounded by small green mountains, which makes it environment rich. Passing through the Rajauli Ghat (that is, the Rajauli pass), a sprawling road from Rajauli takes one to the heights of the Chota Nagpur Plateau and ends at Kodarma and Jhumri Tilaiya, moving onwards to Hazaribagh and Ranchi.

Kakolat , the famed waterfall in the district, finds references in ancients texts.

National highway passes through RAJAULI, which makes it connected to world 24×7. It has got one of the best local market in Nawada district. Rajauli is emerging as s significant market hub for the hinterland regions bordering the Jharkhand state. Rajauli has also produced many professionals including physicians, surgeons, engineers who are working in many parts of India.

Kadirganj, located 10 km from Nawada, has a very old and famous silk small scale industry where many workers carry out the activities of cleaning and weaving of silk. It has commercial and trading linkages with Bhagalpur, a city famous for its silk business including export of silk from india.


Patna District district is one of the districts of Bihar state, India, with Patna as the district headquarters. Patna district is a part of Patna division.Patna district is situated in the south Bihar alluvial plains (Zone III B) among the three agro-climatic zones of divided Bihar. The district is bounded in north by river Ganga, in south by Jahanabad and Nalanda districts, in the east by Lakhisarai district and in the west by Bhojpur district. The district is situated between 25 º 13 ‘ North and 25º 45 ‘ North latitude and 84º43’ East and 25 º 44’ East longitude with a height of 67 meters from M.S.L.

The geographical area of the district is 317236 ha. with 4.13 % land not suitable for cultivation. Patna, besides being the state capital, is also the biggest urban centre of the state. It has highest literacy rate as well as awareness level among the districts of Bihar. It has a ready market for almost all farm and non-farm sector products and is well connected by rail, road and air with almost all the district headquarters and the major cities of the country. (Fig-3.3).

Administratively the district is divided into six subdivisions, twenty-three blocks, 344 Panchayats and 1433 villages (1294 inhabited and 139 uninhabited). (Fig-3.3 and Table 3.2.1) Three tiers Panchayat system is working in Patna since 10/06/2001.

Patna district is surrounded by two river systems namely Ganga in the north and Sone in the west, which falls into Ganga at its northwestern boundary. The river Punpun traverses to a significant stretch from southwest to northeast

The district has the distinction of three agro-ecological situations based on the nature of flooding by these rivers besides two irrigated and unirrigated agro-ecological situations

Agro-ecologically South Bihar Alluvial Plains Zone III B is spread south of river Ganga. Physiographically it is almost plain alluvium, but south of the natural levee of Ganga, there is a parallel stretch of Diara land receiving flash floods. At the eastern end of the district there are stretches of Tal lands where backwaters of Ganga river stagnates in low lands during Kharif season floods between September-December every year. Tal lands extend from Fatuha to Mokameh blocks in the district, here most natural drainage systems i.e. rivers from south simply vanish.

The district has mainly four types of soils ranging from moderately well drained to poorly drain, acidic to slightly alkaline and medium to heavy textured. The climate is of moderate type characterised by quite hot in summers to mild cold in winters. Rainfall is moderate and erratic during Kharif season. The net area sown in the district is 65.16 percent of the total geographical area. The land use classification for the district is detailed in table-3.2.3 below.

The remaining area (34.85 percent) in the district is divided between non-agricultural uses (21.45%), current fallow land (8.55%), barren and uncultivable land (0.11%), permanent pastures and other grazing land (0.04%), plantations (0.15%), gross cropped area is 256694.99 ha. and net area sown is 201103.63 ha. indicating cropping intensity of 127.64 % in the district, which is a bit low as both Tal and Diara areas are mostly mono cropped.(Table-3.2.4).

Total irrigated area in the district is 60545 ha. Out of which canal irrigation accounts for the highest being as high as 60% but some areas do not receive irrigation water at proper cropping time particularly at the tail ends. Sometime this sone canal system does not provide irrigation during entire year. Block wise areas under different AES have been given in table-3.2.5.

Patna district being the state capital is rich in developmental departments for research and Extension. It has got Central Government institutions like ICAR –Research Complex for Eastern Region, Central Potato Research Station, Rice Research Station, Coconut Board, Central Plant Protection office, and institutes of Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, such as Agricultural research institute, Bihar Veterinary College, and S.G.Institute of dairy technology. The other research units important to the farmers of the district are water and Land Management Institute, Bihar State Cooperative Milk Federation, Fisheries Training Institute, DNS Regional Cooperative Training Institute. All the major developmental institutions of the Government of Bihar have their headquarters in Patna.


Purnia district covers 3202.31 sq. kms of the state of Bihar. It is bordered by Araria district in north, Katihar and Bhagalpur district in South, Madhepura and Saharsa district in the west and West Dinajpur district of West Bengal and Kishanganj district of Bihar in east. It lies between 25 degree 13 minutes 80 seconds and 27-degree 7 minutes 59 seconds north latitude and between 86 degree 59 minutes 6 seconds and 87-degree 52 minutes 35 seconds east longitude.

As per 1991 census, the total population of Purnia district is 18,78,885 of which 9,87,241 are male and 8,91,644 are female. The district is divided into 4 sub divisions, 14 Blocks, 251 Gram Panchayats, and 1296 villages. The river Kosi and Mahananda and their tributaries irrigate different parts of the district.District and Divisions of Bihar part 4

Since agriculture is the principal occupation of the people of Purnia. Crops grown in this region are paddy, Jute, Wheat, Maize, Moong, Masoor, Mustard linseed, Sugar cane and Potato. Jute is the major cash crop of Purnia district. Fruit plants like coconut, Banana, Mango, Guava, Lemon, Jack Fruit, Pineapple and banana are also grown here. Rearing of livestock like goat, cow and pig is very popular in Purnia. It produces the maximum number of poultry and eggs in Bihar. The Sugar mill at Banmankhi and 716 other small-scale industries provide employment to the people of Purnia.

Purnia district can be accessed by using road and rail services. The nearest railway station of the district is Katihar, and Purnia is also connected with National Highway No. – 31 to the various states of India.

Popular tourist destinations of Purnia district are

Kajha Kothi

Kali Bari Mandir

Temple of Goddess Puran Devi

Temple of Mata Asthan, Chuna Pur

Temple of Goddess Radha Krishna, Madhubani



Rohtas district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. It came into existence when Shahabad District was bifurcated into Bhojpur & Rohtas in 1972.

The Rohtas district is a part of Patna Division, and it has an area of 3850 km² (square kilometres), a population of 2,448,762 (2001 census), and a population density of 636 persons per km². The languages spoken in this area are Bhojpuri, Hindi and English.

The administrative headquarters of the district, Sasaram is a place of historical importance. Another important symbol of national pride are the parallel bridges built over the Sone River – one for road and another for railway. The road bridge (Jawahar Setu built by Gammon India in 1963–65) over Sone was the longest (3061 m) in Asia until it was surpassed by the Mahatma Gandhi setu (5475 m) over the river Ganges at Patna. Nehru Setu, the railway bridge is the second longest railway bridge in India.

The district is also home to the Rohtasgarh fort, which was one of the strongest forts in the medieval age.

The district is currently a part of the Red Corridor.


Saharsa is one of one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar, India. Saharsa town is the administrative headquarters of this district.

Saharsa district is a part of a larger territory, the Kosi Division and it became a district on 1 April 1954 and subsequently has become smaller with other districts being carved form it, most notably Madhepura in 1981.

Headquarters: Saharasa
Area: 1,696 km?
Population: Total: 1132413 Rural: 1052264 Urban: 80149
Sub Divisions: Saharasa Sadar, Simri Bakhtiyarpur
Blocks: Nauhatta, Simri bakhtiyarpur, Salkhua, Kahra, Mahishi, Sonbarsa, Saurbazar,Patarghat, Sattar, Kateya, Banma Itahari
Agriculture: Paddy
Industry: Jute Factory
Rivers: Kosi, Baghmati,
The place surrounded on the west by the river Kosi boasts an abundance of fish, milk, makhana aprt from some exotic varieties of Mangoes and a summer berry knwon as Litchi. The great saint “shree shree 108 paramhans goswami laxminath” was born in parsharma(Saharsa). His big ashram is located in Bangaon and know as Babji Kuti.


Samastipur is a district in Bihar which is spread over an area of 2904 sq. kms. It is spread over an area of 2904 sq. kms. Samastipur is bounded on the north by the Bagmati River which separates it from Darbhanga district. On the west it is bordered by Vaishali and some part of Muzaffarpur districts, on the south by the Ganges, while on its east it has Begusarai and some part of Khagaria districts. The district headquarters is located at Samastipur.

People of Samastipur mainly speak Hindi. According to the 1991 census, Population Density in the District was 935 per sq.km. and the total population was 2.72 million.

The District is lacking in its educational infrastructure and the Literacy rate is only 36.37 % (male 50.39, female 21.17). The medical facility is also significantly low but there are efforts taken to improve the condition.

The district comprises of 4 sub-divisions, and 14 Community Development Blocks. It has 5 towns and 1237 villages. Infrastucture wise Samastipur is very strong. It is the Divisional Headquarters of the North Eastern railway. The district has direct train link with Patna, Kolkata, Delhi, Dhanbad, Jamshedpur and other places of importance. National Highway No. 28 passes through the district.

Agriculture is the main economic occupation of the district and about 83 per cent of the total working population depends on it. Samastipur is noted for its fertile alluvial soil and its rabi crops. It has been the center of the indigo industry. Wheat, pulses and edible oil seeds are also grown here. Samastipur is lucky to be traversed by rivers like Burhi Gandak, Baya, Kosi, Kamla, Kareh and Jhamwari and Balan, which are both the offshoots of Burhi Gandak. The Ganges also skirts the district on the south.

Saran District
The district of Saran falls under the state of Bihar, India. Covering an area of 2,641 sq. kms, Saran has a total population of 25, 72,980. Its headquarters is located at Saran. It is also known as Chapra.

Agriculture is the main stay and paddy, wheat and sugar cane are the major crops grown there. The sugar factories in the region contribute the most to the industrial scenario of Saran.

The Places having Tourist attraction are Aami, Sonepur, Dhorh Ashram, Goutam Asthan, Silhauri, and Chirand.

The historical background of the district as available in Ain-E-Akbari records Saran as one of the six Sarkars( Revenue Divisions) constituting the province of Bihar, At the time of grant of Diwani to the East India company in 1765, there were eight Sarkars including Saran and Champaran. These two were later combined to form a single unit named Saran. Saran(along The historical background of the district- as available in thewith Champaran) was included in the Patna Division when the Commissioner’s Divisions were set up in 1829. It was separated from Champaran in 1866 when it (Champaran) was constituted into a separate district. Saran was made a part of Tirhut Division when latter was created in 1908. By this time there were three subdivisions in this district namely Saran, Siwan and Gopalganj. In 1972 each subdivision of the old Saran district became an independent district. The new Saran district after separation of Siwan and Gopalganj still has its headquarters at Chapra.


Various hypothesis have been put forward about the origin of the name SARAN. General Cunningham suggested that Saran was earlier known as SARAN or asylum which was a name given to a stupa (Pillar) built by emperor Ashoka. Another view holds that the name SARAN has been derived from SARANGA- ARANYA or the deer forest, the district being famous for its wide expanses of forest and deer in prehistoric times. The earliest authentic historical fact or record concerning this district may perhaps be related to 898 A.D which suggest that the village of Dighwara dubauli in Saran had supplied a copper plate issued in the reign of king Mahendra paldeva.

The district of Saran is situated between 25°36′ and 26°13′ North latitude and 84°24′ and 85°15′ East longitude in the southern post of the newly created Saran Division of North Bihar. The Ganges constitute the Southern boundary of the district beyond which lie the districts of Bhojpur and Patna. To the north of Saran lie districts of Siwan and Gopalganj. The Gandak forms the dividing line with vaishali and Muzaffarpur district in the east. To the west of Saran lies district of Siwan and the district of Balia in Uttar Pradesh, the Ghaghra constituting a natural boundary between Saran and Ballia.

The district is shaped like a triangle with its apex at the confluence of boundary of Gopalganj district and Gandak-Ganga river there are three rivers namely the Ganga, Ghaghra, Gandak which encircle the district from south north east and western side respectively. The district is entirely constituted of plains but there are quite a few depressions and marshes, which cause the formation of three broad natural divisions.

I. The alluvial plains along the big rivers which are subjected to periodic inundation and prone to floods.

II. The region of uplands away from the rivers and not subject to floods.

III. The diara areas in the beds of the great rivers.

Out of twenty blocks in the districts, Six blocks viz Sonepur, Dighwara, Revelganj, Chapra, Manjhi and Dariyapur are affected by floods regularly. There are six partially flood affected blocks Viz. Garkha, Parsa, Marhoura, Amnaur, Jalalpur, and Ekma. The remaining blocks are free from floods. The soil of the district is alluvial. No mineral of economic value is found in the district.


Sheikhupura District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab , Pakistan. Sheikhupura is the headquarters of Sheikhupura District.

The district comprises of 4 tehsils





There are 6 other Districts that connect to Sheikhupura, namely: Lahore, Kasur, Nankana Sahib, Narowal, Hafizabad, and Gujranwala, and the international boundary of Amritsar

The district had a population of 3,321,029 of which 25.45% were urban in 1998.

The area is a part of Rachna Doab, and consists of some recent sediment brought by spill channel from Chenab River. There are some old channel levee remnants and old basins filled up with clay materials. It is probably of late Pleistocene age derived from mixed calcareous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the lower Himalayas. The only mineral products of the District are Kankar and Kallar. The small particles of Kankar may be burnt into lime. These are the features of all bare lands and are found on the surface or a little below it. Kallar is found on mounds, which are sites of old ruined habitations, and is used for the manufacture of crude saltpeter.

The District has extreme climate; the summer season starts from April and continues till October. During the summer season, temperature ranges from 30 to 45 degrees Celsius. The winter season starts from November and continues till March. December and January are the coldest months with a mean minimum temperature of 5 degrees.

The dust storms occur occasionally during the hot season, during June, July and August. Rainy weather alternates with oppressive weather. The rainfall is 500mm per year. The mean minimum and maximum humidity during winter is 37% and 84%.

Sheohar is the smallest district of Tirhut Division. Previously it was a Subdivision of Sitamarhi district. It separated from sitamarhi on 06-10-1994. The population of Sheohar district The most common language was Bajjika & Maithili. Paddy, maize & wheat are the common crops here. It is a floaded areas. A village Deokoli is situate in this district 4(four) miles east of Sheohar. The village contains a group of temples situated in a large courtyard standing at the top of a great mound ; the latter is ascended by a long flight of steps leading from a fire lake stretching for half mile below. This mound is called Draupadgarh and local tradition affirms that it was the fort of Draupada of the Mahabharata. The principle temple, which contains a large lingam is called Bhubaneshwar. A fair is held here on the Shivaratri Day.


Sitamarhi is a town and the district headquarters of Sitamarhi district in the Mithila region of Bihar, India, and is a part of the Tirhut Division. Sitamarhi is considered the birthplace of Sita, the main character of the epic Ramayana. A temple dedicated to Sita is located near Sitamarhi. A rock cut sanctuary from the great Mauryan period is found near Sitamarhi.

In 1875, the Sitamarhi sub-district was created within the Muzaffarpur district.  Sitmarhi was detached from the Muzaffarpur district and became a separate district on December 11, 1972.  It is situated in the northern part of Bihar. The district headquarters is located in Dumra, five kilometres south of Sitamarhi.



Siwan, situated in the western part of the State, was originally a sub-division of Saran District, which in ancient days formed a part of Kosala Kingdom. The present district limits came into existence only in 1972, which is geographically situated at 25º35 North and 84º1 to 84º47 east.
The total area of the Siwan district is about 2219.00 Sq. Km. with a population of 21,56,428 as per the 1991 census. The district is bounded on the east by the Saran district, on the north by Gopalganj district and on the west and south by two districts of U.P. viz. Deoria and Balia respectively.
Siwan derived its name from “Shiva Man”, a Bandh Raja whose heirs ruled this area till Babarâ arrival. Maharajganj, which is another subdivision of Siwan district, may have found its name from the seat of the Maharaja there. A recently excavated marvelous statue of Lord Vishnu at Village Bherbania from underneath a tree indicates that there were large numbers of followers of Lord Vishnu in the area.
Some believe Siwan to be the place where Lord Buddha died. Siwan is also known as Aliganj Sawan after the name of Ali Bux, one of the ancestors of the feudal lords of the area. Siwan was a part of Banaras Kingdom during 8th century. Muslims came here in the 13th century. Sikandar Lodi brought this area in his kingdom in 15th century. Babar crossed Ghaghra river near Siswan in his return journey. In the end of the 17th century, the Dutch came first followed by the English. After the battle of Buxar in 1765 it became a part of Bengal.
Siwan played an important role in 1857 independence movement. It is famous for the stalwart and sturdy persons who have always been noted for their martial spirit and physical endurance and from whom the army and police personnel were largely drawn. A good number of them rebelled and rendered their services to Babu Kunwar Singh. The anti pardah movement in Bihar was started by Sri Braj Kishore Prasad who also belonged to Siwan in response to the Non Co-Operative movement in 1920. A big meeting was organised at Darauli in Siwan District on the eve of the Kartik Purnima Mela under the leadership of Dr. Rajendra Prasad who had thrown away his lucrative practice as an advocate in the Patna High Court at the call of Gandhiji. In the wake of this movement Maulana Mazharul Haque, who came to stay with his maternal uncle Dr. Saiyyad Mahmood in Siwan, had constructed an ashram on the Patna-Danapur road which subsequently became Sadaquat Ashram The next phase of the Non co-operation movement known as the Civil Disobedience movement of 1930, was fully implemented in Siwan.
In connection with the Satyagrah Movement Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru made a whirlwind tour of the different parts of Bihar. One of the famous meetings he addressed was at Maharajganj. A few persons of present Siwan District who played an important role in the attainment of independence were Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Maulana Mazharul Haque, Shri Mahendra Prasad the elder brother of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Dr. Sayyad Mohammad, Shri Braj Kishore Prasad and Shri Phulena Prasad. Uma Kant Singh (Raman jee) of Narendrapur achieved martyrdom during the Quit India Movement. Jwala Prasad and Narmedshwar Prasad of Siwan helped Jai Prakash Narayan after his escape from Hazaribagh Central Jail. One of the most renowed literaturer of this country Pandit Rahul Sankritayayana started peasant Movement here between 1937 to 1938. During his visit to Champaran Mahatma Gandhi and Madan Mohan Malviya visited Siwan and Gandhiji even spent a night at Zeradei in the house of Dr. Rajendra Prasad. The chowki on which he slept then is still kept intact there.
The major changes in the jurisdiction of the district were creation of Siwan as district and the changes resulting there from, and the implementation of Trivedi Award on the 10th June, 1970 resulting in substantial alteration of jurisdiction. Siwan was being declared as a district in 1972 in which it was proposed to include 10 blocks of Gopalganj and 13 blocks of Siwan subdivisions. Two blocks Bhagwanpur and Basantpur of Siwan were declared to be added to the jurisdiction of proposed Marhaura subdivision. But after one year later in 1973 Gopalganj was made a separate district with it’s 10 blocks included in Siwan earlier and thus Siwan constituted its original 15 blocks including Bhagwanpur and Basantpur blocks. Trivedi Award was implemented on 10th June 1970. Thereby fourteen villages of Siwan having an area of 13092 acres were transferred to U.P. and twelve villages of U.P. with an area of 6679 acres were transferred to Siwan. The basis of this transfer was the position of Ghaghara river in 1885. After 1885 the course of the river changed from time to time resulting in intermixing the areas of U.P. with those of Siwan. Hence the position of 1885 was taken to be the base and those transfer were made accordingly.
Before the Trivedi Award the boundary of Siwan with U.P. was flexible changing with the course of the river. After the Award this boundary was fixed by installing pillars on the conspicuous points, the maintenance of which is done by Govt. of Utter Pradesh and the administration of Siwan as per the provisions of the Awards. Thus after this Awards, the so far flexible boundary of Siwan vis-a-vis U.P. on both banks of Ghaghara river was given a stability. Presently four more blocks have been created namely Lakri Nabiganj, Nautan, Jiradei and Hasanpura block. Out of these newly created blocks Lakri Nabiganj is functional and rests of the three are not functional. Thus there are sixteen functional blocks in the district Namely – Siwan, Mairwa, Darauli, Guthani, Hussainganj, Andar, Raghunathpur, Siswan, Barharia, Pachrukhi under Siwan subdivision and Maharajganj, Duraondha, Goreakothi, Basantpur, Bhagwanpur and Lakri Nabiganj under Maharajganj subdivision.



The District of Supaul had been a part of Mithilanchal since the Vedic period. The area has been referred  as the fishery area (Matsya Kshetra) in the Hindu mythology. The two oldest democracies namely Angutaran and Apadnigam are known for their existence in the Buddhist era, which comprises of today’s area of district Supaul. Supaul is situated at 25 deg 37’-26 deg 25’ N latitude and 86 deg 22’-87 deg 10’ E longitude. Soil is alluvial type. The river Koshi flows through the district which is consider as the sorrow of not only this area, but whole of the state of Bihar,tilyuga chhaimra,kali,tilawe,bhenga,mirchaiya,sursar are the tributaries to it .The type of soil is sandy. Some where it is acetic and somewhere it is basic in nature. Supaul district in Bihar covers an area of 2,420 sq km.Supaul district is part of the Koshi division.Supaul town is the administrative headquarter of the district. The district is bounded by Nepal in the north, Saharsa in the south, by Araria district in the east and on the west by Madhubani district.


Vaishali District is a district in Bihar state, India. It is named after the Vaishali (ancient city). The history of Vaishali district is thus very ancient, and finds mention in the Indian classic Mahabharata, as well as in Buddhist and Jain tradition.

Vaishali derives its name from King Vishal of the Mahabharata age. Even before the advent of Buddhism and Jainism, Vaishali was the capital of the vibrant republican Licchavi state since before the birth of Mahavira (c. 599 BC), which suggests that it was perhaps the first republic in the world, similar to those later found in ancient Greece. In that period, Vaishali was an ancient metropolis and the capital city of the republic of the Vaishali state, which covered most of the Himalayan Gangetic region of present-day Bihar state, India. Very little is known about the early history of Vaishali. The Vishnu Purana records 34 kings of Vaishali, the first being Nabhaga, who is believed to have abdicated his throne over a matter of human rights and believed to have declared: “I am now a free tiller of the soil, king over my acre.” The last among the 34 was Sumati, who is considered a contemporary of Dasaratha, father of the Hindu god, Lord Rama.

Numerous references to Vaishali are found in texts pertaining to both Jainism and Buddhism, which have preserved much information on Vaishali and the other Maha Janapadas. Based on the information found in these texts, Vaishali was established as a republic by the 6th century BC, prior to the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563, making it the world’s first republic.

In the republic of Vaishali, Lord Mahavira was born. Gautama Buddha delivered his last sermon at Vaishali and announced his Parinirvana there. Vaishali is also renowned as the land of Ambapali (also spelled as Amrapali), the great Indian courtesan, who appears in many folktales, as well as in Buddhist literature. Ambapali became a disciple of Buddha.

A kilometre away is Abhishek Pushkarini, the coronation tank. The sacred waters of the tank anointed the elected representatives of Vaishali. Next to it stands the Japanese temple and the Vshwa Shanti Stupa (World Peace Pagoda) built by the Nipponzan Myohoji sect of Japan. A small part of the Buddha’s relics found in Vaishali have been enshrined in the foundation and in the chhatra of the Stupa. Near the coronation tank is Stupa 1 or the Relic Stupa. Here the Lichchavis reverentially encased on of the eight portions of the Master’s relics, which they received after the Mahaparinirvana. After his last discourse the Awakened One set out for Kushinagar, but the Lichchavis kept following him. Buddha gave them his alms bowl but they still refused to return. The Master created an illusion of a river in spate which compelled them to go back. This site can be identified with Deora in modern Kesariya village, where Ashoka later built a stupa. Ananda, the favourite disciple of the Buddha, attained Nirvana in the midst of the Ganga outside Vaishali.


West Champaran District
Pashchim Champaran occupies an area of 5228 Sq. km. As per 2001 census, the total population of the district is 3,043,044. It is located between 26°16′ and 27°31′ north latitudes and between 83°50′ and 85°18′ east longitudes.

The economy of the district of Pashchim Champaran is chiefly agrarian. Farmers of the region are involved in cultivation of paddy, sugarcane, and cane reeds. One of the popular agro-based industries of the district is sugar mills established at Majhaulia, Bagaha, Ramnagar, Narkatiaganj, Chanpatia and Lauria.

Some of the places of tourist interest in the district of Pashchim Champaran are Valmikinagar, Bank of Triveni, Bawangarhi, Bhiknatohari, Saraiya Man, Sumeswer Fort, Brindavan, Bhitiharawa Ashram, Nandangarh and Chankigarh, and Ashoka Pillars.

Bettiah is the headquarters of West Champaran district in the state of Bihar, in India. It is an agricultural trade centre, it also manufactures brass, metalware and leather goods. The seat of the Bettiah Raj estate, established in the 17th century, it contains the Maharaja’s Palace and a number of temples beside other places to visit.

There is a Roman Catholic Mission, established in 1740. At 23 Kilometres North-West, Lauriya Nandangarh is located where an Asokan Pillar and some funeral mounds said to be the only indisputably Vedic monuments identified in India.

About 28 Kilometres North-West of Bettiah at Lauriya Nandangarh, lie an Asokan Pillar and some funeral mounds, the only indisputably Vedic monuments identified in India. Recent excavations at one of these mounds produced a mixture of contents, including punch-marked coins, cast copper coins, apart from terracotta figurines and clay sealings of the first century B.C. Four of these mounds were excavated in 1904-07 and two of them yielded a deposit of burnt bones with charcoal and a gold leaf with a Mother-goddess figure , they were regarded by the excavator to be Vedic burial tumuli. After the re-examination in 1935-37, they were definitely recognized to be stupas of mud or mud-bricks with baked-brick revetments (in two cases with actual brick-lining). Nandangarh, about two kilometres, from the Asokan Pillar, represents a fortified habitation-site. At one end of the site was excavated a large brick stupa, reared up on multiple polygonal terraces with large number of re-entrant angles. This edifice, of the early centuries A.D., is the earliest example of a terraced stupa, which culminated in the celebrated monuments of Paharpur in Bangladesh and Borobudur in Java, both dating from circa A.D. 800.



BPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for BPCS Prelims and BPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by BPCS Notes are as follows:-