Ore An ore is a special type of rock that contains a large enough amount of a particular mineral (usually a metal) to make it economically practical to extract that mineral from the surrounding rock. Not all minerals are found in a large enough amount in one location to make it worth it to remove the ore … Read more


Minerals Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical formula and general structure. Almost all chemical elements in the Earth’s crust are associated with at least one mineral. They vary in color, hardness, density, crystal form, crystal size, transparency, composition, location, and abundance. Some minerals are radioactive (uranophane), while others … Read more

Metallurgy of iron

Metallurgy of iron Iron is an important constituent of hemoglobin, which is in blood. Iron is the metal used most widely in industries and hence may be called the king of metals. It is the second most abundant metal after aluminum. Iron does not occur in native state, since it is oxidized easily. Ores of Iron Chemical Name Chemical … Read more

Metallurgy of Copper

  Metallurgy of Copper Copper Mining: The commonest ore used in the extraction of copper is Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) also known as Copper Pyrites and other such sulfides. The percentage of copper in the actual ore is too low for direct extraction of copper to be viable. The concentration of ore is required and it is done by the Froth … Read more

Metallurgy concentration, roasting, smelting

Metallurgy concentration, roasting, smelting Roasting It is a process wherein the ore is heated either alone or with some other material in excess of air below the fusion point of the ore. Usually, this method is used for sulphide ores. In roasting, definite chemical changes take place to form oxide or chloride of the metal. … Read more

Refining of ores Metallurgy

 Refining of ores Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy is the process of obtaining metals from ores. It may be defined as the processes which are involved in the extraction of metals from their ores and then refining them for use are known as metallurgy. Steps of Metallurgy: Metals can be extracted from their ores by following processes: Enrichment of … Read more

Laboratory method of preparation acetic acid

Laboratory method of preparation acetic acid Ethanoic Acid (Acetic acid – CH COOH) Ethanoic acid is the second member of the homologous series of carboxylic acids. In other words, vinegar contains about 5 to 8% acetic acid. We will now describe two methods for the manufacture of ethanoic acid. In the first method, ethanoic acid … Read more

laboratory method of preparing alcohol

Laboratory method of preparing alcohol Hydrolysis of Alkyl Halides This is a nucleophilic  substitution reaction. R-X + KOHaq → R-OH The method is not satisfactory as olefins are also formed as by-products. However better yields is obtained by using moist Ag2O or aqueous K2CO3. Tertiary butyl halides mainly gives alkene due to dehydrohalogenation. Hydration of Alkenes This … Read more

Corossion of metals

Corrosion is defined as an attack on a material as a result of chemical, frequently electrochemical reaction, with the surrounding medium. According to this definition, the term corrosion can be applied to all materials, including non-metals. But in practice, the word corrosion is mainly used in conjunction with metallic materials. Why do metals corrode? Apart … Read more


Alloy You might see the word alloy described as a “mixture of metals”, but that’s a little bit misleading because some alloys contain only one metal and it’s mixed in with other substances that are nonmetals (cast iron, for example, is an alloy made of just one metal, iron, mixed with one nonmetal, carbon). The … Read more

Hope we have satisfied your need for BPSC Prelims and Mains Preparation

Kindly review us to serve even better

BPSC Mains Test Series 2022

20 Quality mock tests and GS Mains Notes

Mains Test Series and Notes (With Evaluation and Skill Enhancement)

Mains Printed Notes (With COD)

Mains PDF Notes (Digital)

For Any Suggestion’s and Updates kindly Comments your doubts Here

Subscribe to BPSC Notes

Never Miss any BPSC important update!

Join 8,598 other subscribers
error: Content is protected !!