Bihar is arranged on the banks of the waterway Ganges. The stream Ganges moves through the state and goes through areas of Buxar, Bhojpur, Chapra, Patna, Vaishali, Begusarai and Bhagalpur. In the north, the Bihar state has regular outskirts with the Nepal. In the east, it is bound by west Bengal and in the west by Uttar Pradesh. In the south, it fringes Jharkhand state, which was made after bifurcation of Bihar. The province of Bihar has extremely prolific land in the Ganges waterway catchments however the regions in Southern Bihar is murramy and not exceptionally rich. The Important waterways of the state are Ganga, Son,Koshi and Gandak.
Bihar contains sub-Himalayan foothills and mountains with wet deciduous woods. Precipitation may surpass 1600 millimeters for every year. Normal trees incorporate
- Shorea robusta (sal),
- Toona ciliata,
- Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu),
- Boswellia serrata (salai),
- Terminalia tomentosa (asan),
- Terminalia bellirica (bahera),
- Terminalia arjuna (arjun),
- Pterocarpus marsupium (paisar),
- Madhuca indica (mahua).
Other vegetation found in Bihar is :
- Holarrhena antidysenterica (Kutaja)
- Bauhinia vahlii (Malu)
- Flemingia chappar
- Ziziphus xylopyrus
- Butea superba
- Smilex protifrera
- Butea parviflora
The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and Dun ranges in Champaran constitute belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consists of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 mm and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the favoured areas. The hot and dry summer gives the deduous forests. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta (Sal), Shisham, Cedrela Toona, Khair, and Semal. This type of forests also occurs in Saharasa and Purnia districts.
In the below pie chart we can see forest cover of Bihar. We can see vegetation cover of Bihar is very less than the recommended. It is only 7.86 % which is very less than the national average.
Dispersion of the Forests:
The state has got normal sal timberlands in the region of West Champaran in the terai district of shivaliks. In addition, Sal timberlands are bottomless in the southern Bihar in the areas of Kaimur,Rohatas,Aurangabad,Gaya,Jamui,Munger and Banka. The West Champaran locale has damp deciduous Sal timberland while south Bihar has dry deciduous Sal Forests.
The vast majority of the Natural Forests arekept as protected Forests. The Distribution of Forests in the Bihar State is as per the following:
The province of Bihar directly has 6845 sq km informed normal woods territory which is 7.27 % of the topographical region of the state. These common timberlands are spread in the regions of West Champaran, Kaimur, Rohtas, Aurangabad, Gaya, Jahanabad, Nawada, Nalanda,Munger,Banka and Jamui. The north Bihar with the exception of West Champaran is without Natural Forests.
The Plant Species Composition:
The critical Tree types of Bihar are Sal (Shorea robusta), Shisham, Teak, Gamhar, Kadamb, Semal ,Neem Peepal Bargad,Arjun, Asan, Haldu,Mahua and Kend and so forth .
Essential Secretary, Environment and Forest Department is accountable for the Department in the Government of Bihar who works under the Hon’ble Minister, Environment and Forest Department. Vital Chief Conservator of Forest, Bihar is in general charge of the Department at Directorate Level. At Head quarter level, PCCF Development controls the Developmental exercises of the Department. APCCF Wildlife is the Chief untamed life superintendent of the state and controls the natural life organization of the state. Working arrangement, augmentation and preparing matters are controlled by APCCF, Working Plan. Woods preservation Act and CAMPA Matters are controlled by APCCF CAMPA.
The Environmental and forest related issues in the state are controlled at the level of Bihar Pollution Control Board and Principal Secretary, Environment and Forest and Advisor, Environment at the Government level.
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